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Title: 暴雨事件整合點源及非點源之集水區土砂產量推估研究
Watershed Sediment Yield Estimate With Sources of Point and Non-Point Sediment during Heavy Rain Period
Authors: 溫惠鈺
Contributors: 國立臺灣海洋大學:河海工程學系
Keywords: 土壤沖蝕量;坡地崩塌量;土砂產量
soil erosion;landslide;sediment yield;HSPF
Date: 2012-03
Issue Date: 2017-04-27
Publisher: 中國土木水利工程學刊
Abstract: 摘要:集水區土砂產量推估是集水區治理與流域防災工作重要的一環,而台灣之特有地質、地形及氣候條件,常造成颱風豪雨時期集水區內之表土遭受沖刷以及上游坡地發生崩塌,使得大量土砂經由河道由集水區流出;而國內對於集水區土砂產量之推估模式,大多僅考慮非點狀來源之坡面土壤沖蝕量,較少一併考量點狀來源之崩塌土方量貢獻,故如何較精確地推估降雨期間集水區坡地崩塌及土壤沖蝕所引發之土砂產量值,是集水區治理工作之首要重點。本研究利用美國環保署(USEPA)與Hydrocomp Inc.共同發展之HSPF水文模式,同時考慮坡地崩塌量與土壤沖蝕量,藉由土砂運移機制,建立一套集水區土砂產量推估模式。研究中以花蓮縣秀林鄉境內土石流潛勢溪流集水區為例,分析計算於暴雨事件下各集水區之土砂產量;分析結果顯示,在考慮坡地崩塌量情況下,各集水區之土砂產量較僅考慮坡面土壤沖蝕量時增加1.1~14.4倍,顯見崩塌土方量對於集水區土砂產量有顯著的貢獻。因此,利用本研究建立之集水區土砂產量推估模式,同時考慮坡地崩塌量與土壤沖蝕量,較能符合真實集水區產砂機制,如此不但能準確的進行集水區土砂產量之分析,且其結果可作為集水區防災工程設計參考,使得集水區整治更能符合經濟效益。
Abstract:The sediment yield estimate of a watershed is important in watershed management and disaster prevention. The geology, topography and meteorological conditions of Taiwan provide the essential factors for triggering soil erosion and landslides in watersheds. Most of the existing sediment yield estimation models in calculation merely take into account non-point source of sediment from erosion. For a landslide-prone watershed, landslides can be significant sources of sediment in determining the sediment yield of the watershed. How to accurately estimate the sediment yield from both soil erosion and management. In this study, the HSPF model, which is developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Hydrocomp Inc. wasused to establish an approach to the sediment yield estimation. The proposed method was applied to debris-flow-prone catchments in the Sioulin Township, Hualien County. The results showed that the sediment yield when considering landslides were found increasing at about 1.1 to 14.4 times than that estimated under the soil erosion conditions. It is more realistic to estimate the watershed sediment yield when considering the mechanism of landslide and soil erosion. Therefore, this approach can be used as reference in the design of disaster prevention projects, and improve the efficiency of watershed management works.
Relation: 24(1), pp.85 - 99
Appears in Collections:[Department of Harbor and River Engineering] Periodical Articles

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