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The development of Taiwan milkfish industry and market margins
|Authors: ||Liu, Yu-Jen|
|Contributors: ||NTOU:Institute of Applied Economics|
market margins;ECFA;market structure;price risk elasticity
|Issue Date: ||2017-04-26T01:57:38Z
|Abstract: ||虱目魚在臺灣是相當重要的養殖魚種，2012年虱目魚在消費地市場的產量與產值，皆排名在所有養殖魚種的第二位；除此之外，2012年的虱目魚養殖面積達11,438公頃，佔養殖漁業的總養殖面積21.91%，亦為ECFA早收清單的項目之一，對臺灣漁業經濟影響重大。 本文先介紹臺灣養殖漁業及虱目魚產業概況，並藉由資料的觀察，發現虱目魚在臺灣的市場價差，當中包括販運商的進貨價格與售貨價格差距，稱為集貨價差；批發商的進貨價格與售貨價格差距，稱為批發價差；零售商進貨價格與售貨價格差距，稱為零售價差。本研究中，我們將這些轉手過程廠商合稱為運銷商，直接定義運銷價差為產地市場價格與消費地市場價格差距。 本文參考Schroeter and Azzam（1991）建立運銷價差模型，將運銷價差的影響變數分為廠商營運邊際成本、寡買力量（需求彈性）、寡賣力量（供給彈性）以及零售價格不確定性等，並利用臺灣地區2000年到2012年的資料，探討虱目魚的運銷價差。 實證結果發現，虱目魚產地市場結構為完全競爭市場；零售市場其市場結構為不完全競爭市場，而Lerner Index為0.8803，顯示虱目魚運銷商對零售市場有議價能力。臺灣虱目魚產業之運銷價差平均值為9.3183元/公斤，邊際成本平均值為-4.4246元/公斤，佔當期價差比例為-47.48%；寡賣力量平均值為43.0068元/公斤，佔當期價差比例為461.53%；零售價格風險平均值為1.1033元/公斤，佔當期價差比例為11.84%。勞動工資、運輸費率、冰塊費率與零售價格風險等因素皆對運銷價差有顯著之影響。 關鍵字：海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議、運銷價差、市場結構、價格風險|
The milkfish is the main species in Taiwan’s aquaculture and its production ranked second in the consumption markets in 2012. Besides, the aquaculture area of the milkfish was 11,438 hectares and accounted for 21.91% of the whole farming area in Taiwan in the same year. The milkfish industry which significantly impacted on Taiwan’s fisheries was also on the early harvest list of ECFA. This thesis introduced aquaculture and milkfish industry in Taiwan. We observe many spreads in different markets. The spread between distributor’s purchasing price and sales price are known as the distributing margins; the spread between wholesaler’s purchasing price and sales price are known as the wholesaling margins; the spread between retailer’s purchasing price and sales price are known as retailing margins. In this study, we will simply call these players operators and define the ‘market margins’ as the spread between the production price and the consumption price. This study references the regression model in Schroeter and Azzam (1991) to understand the market margins in Taiwan milkfish industry through separating the market margins into four elements: marginal processing cost, oligopoly and oligopsony price distortions, and output price uncertainty. We use the local date from 2000 to 2012. Empirical results show that the origin of milkfish market structure is perfectly competitive market while the retail market is not perfectly competitive market structure. The Lerner Index is 0.8803, indicating milkfish market provider has bargaining power for the retail market. The average of the market margin in the milkfish industry in Taiwan is 9.3183 yuan spread / kg, and the average marginal cost is -4.4246 yuan / kg, accounts for -47.48% current spreads. The oligopoly power is 43.0068 yuan / kg, which accounts for 461.53% of the spread. The average risk of output price uncertainty is 1.1033 yuan / kg, accounting for 11.84% of the profit spread. Wages, shipping fee, ice cost and retail prices are the factors that impact significantly on the market spreads. Key Words： market margins, ECFA , market structure, price risk elasticity.
|Appears in Collections:||[應用經濟研究所] 博碩士論文|
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