|Abstract: ||船舶發生碰撞事故時，其可能涉及之法律責任分別有民事、刑事、行政責任，本研究以釐清各法律責任可能所需證據之蒐集作為探討之重心，至所生之管轄、法律適用等問題即應運而生，惟釐清我國是否有權審理解決該海事案件，並不在本研究探究範圍之列，且本研究之範圍限制於我國管轄水域內海上所發生之船舶與船舶間之碰撞事故。 由於海上活動存有不可預期之風險，縱為解決船舶碰撞的財產損害賠償糾紛制定了許多國際公約與法規，然而在司法實踐上，船舶碰撞事故之財產糾紛仍不斷發生，故乃就船舶碰撞事故責任釐清、舉證責任分配等重要議題探究之。關於船舶於海上發生事故時，對於事故發生之原因與過程，除船上人員之陳述外，其他如跡證移轉、航行紀錄等均可逐一勾勒出事故發生之經過，但關於這些相關證據資料之保全及調查，有哪些是必須注意、有哪些是必須蒐集的，於執行上有相當程度的困難之議題。 我國主要職司海上交通安全之公務機關有交通部航港局及行政院海岸巡防署，關於碰撞事故原因之調查端賴交通部海事評議小組為之，而相關證據資料蒐集、採樣則由海巡人員進行，本研究透過文獻探討、案例比較法分析、歸納法及田野調查法等研究方式，釐清船舶碰撞事故之責任，分析各國船舶碰撞法制蒐證之規定，針對我國海巡人員之執法現況、流程及面對船舶碰撞事故應如何即時蒐證及調查擬定應行注意事項、作業流程及調查事故報告表範本，並建議交通部航港局加速海上交通安全法之擬定，以尋求更為適切之取證、蒐證程序及船舶碰撞法律制度，並給予執法人員執法之法源依據，透過作業流程及調查報告表範本之建立藉以作為船舶碰撞事故發生後即時蒐證保全證據注意事項、提供司法實務審判應為調查之證據內容，另就調查事項所得建立海事統計資料庫及整合船舶監控系統之應用，除確保人民生命財產之安全及後續事故責任之釐清外，對於日後可能發生之碰撞事故亦有預防之效果，俾減少海事糾紛處理之時程及海事糾紛之發生。|
When a ship collision occurred, it might be involve in Civil, Criminal, Administrative liability. The issue of this study is to clarify the evidence collection of each liability which may be required, up to the jurisdiction and law application which derived from the accident. This study is limited to discuss the ship collisions which happened on sea area of ROC’s jurisdiction, whether Taiwan has the right to judge for the accidents isn’t the scope of this study. Due to the unpredictable risks of the sea activities, lots of international conventions and regulations are instituted in order to solve the disputes of property damage and reimbursement which caused by ship collisions. In judicial practice, however, the property disputes of ship collisions still happen constantly. Thus, clarification of ship collisions and the burden of proof are emphasized issues.When the ship accident occurred at sea, for the reasons and process of the accident, in addition to a statement of the crew, the other as evidence migration, vessel data records, etc. they can be appear the fact after the accident, but on the perpetuation and inspection of evidence, which is important to note and which is necessary to collect, there is a considerable degree of difficulty issues on execution. In Taiwan, major traffic safety agency on sea is Maritime and Port Bureau, Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MOTC) and Coast Guard Administration, Executive Yuan. The Group for Investigation of Marine Casualties is focused on the reason of collisions. And the collection of relevant evidence is conducted by Coast Guard. In this paper, literature review, cases-study comparative analysis, and inductive method will be conducted to clarify the liability of ship collision, analyzing the rules of evidence collection in other countries, in order to build a model for Guard’s current situation, procedures, investigation report of accident, and how to collect evidence when the collision occur. Furthermore, through this model, we can advise Maritime and Port Bureau, MOTC to accelerate the formulation of Maritime traffic safety law to seek proper law and way on evidence collection and procedure to establish the sources of maritime law when officials are on their duties.; through this model, we can have the sample to follow and know how to reserve the evidence in time and on judicial practice, to offer the useful evidence. Besides, we can establish a data base for collisions and combine it with the vessel monitoring system. It can not only secure the human lives and properties and clarify the subsequent liabilities, but also can prevent and minimize the time handling the maritime disputes and reduces the disputes.