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|Issue Date: ||2017-03-22T05:46:53Z
|Abstract: ||對航海員而言，完善的航路規劃實為一項嚴謹且極需仰賴實務經驗及操作技巧的工作，目前電子海圖顯示與資訊系統(ECDIS)在船上已普遍被用來協助規劃及展示與監視航路，但對於航路上遭遇礙航區時之避障規劃，其仍以手動方式判斷障礙物及調整轉向點加以修訂，此規劃方式往往因操作人員經驗不足、判斷失誤及海圖作業疏忽等失事風險，造成船舶航程及營運成本增加，甚至導致海事事故的發生。本研究依據ECDIS之功能架構結合GIS於空間資料管理、空間分析和幾何運算的優異能力，進行圖層套疊分析運算，並運用繞行礙航區轉向角度最小及航段距離最大的避障概念，建構出偏航角最小之船舶避障模式；同時亦經由不同礙航區分佈情境的分析結果，加入二元樹與方向一致性準則修訂多障礙避障機制，及利用路徑截彎取直方式簡化避障航路，以發展出更符合航海者導向之避障模式。最後，透過VC#程式整合GIS Add-in開發使用者介面，經由情境與案例分析測試，無論在避障航路建構、為避免反覆轉向與距離突增所設計之航路簡化機制、以及各轉向點經緯度與彼此間航向和距離的運算結果，均與預期之要求相符，足以驗證各模組運算之正確性；建構出符合航海習慣下可用於船舶避障航路規劃之自動化模組，以供後續ECDIS與航路規劃自動化的整合發展，並協助航行員在進行航路規劃時之參考。
Appropriate route planning is a strict task and greatly relying on personal practically experiences and operating skills for navigators. The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) on board is used to assist navigator in route planning, display voyage information and route surveillance, however, a detoured route (obstacle avoidance route) is still required manual judgments and adjustments while the preliminary route made by ECDIS passes through unnavigable areas. It will not only reduce the navigational aid benefits of ECDIS, but also might increase in voyage distance as well as shipping costs, and even lead to the maritime accidents, since the lack of manipulative experience or the negligent judgement and verification. In this study, GIS was incorporated into ECDIS, using GIS’ superior capacity in special data management, spatial analysis and geometric computing capability to analyze and calculate overlays, and using the obstacle avoidance theorems related to minimal angle of altering course and maximum route segment distance to construct an obstacle avoidance model, allowing vessels to bypass unnavigable areas with smallest yaw angles. Moreover, based on the results acquired from analyzing the distribution of unnavigable areas, binary tree and coherent voyage criterion were employed to revise multi-obstacle avoidance mechanism, and path-straightening method was employed to streamline routes and to avoid obstacles at the same time. Thus, a navigator-based obstacle avoidance model was completed. Lastly, VC# Program was employed to integrate GIS Add-in and to develop user’s interface. According to the results obtained from situation and case analysis, the model meets all expectations including obstacle-free route, streamlined route without repeated turning and without sudden increase of distance, and conforms to the results acquired from calculating all turning points’ coordinates as well as the directions and distances between all turning points. Apparently, the results were sufficient to validate the calculations of all modules. This study has constructed an automatic module for obstacle avoidance planning based on nautical routines, allowing subsequent researchers to integrate ECDIS into route planning automation and to help navigators prepare routes effectively.
|Appears in Collections:||[商船學系] 演講及研討會|
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