Abstract: Some 290 species of squids comprise the order Teuthida that belongs to the molluscan Class Cephalopoda. Of these, about 30–40 squid species have substantial commercial importance around the world. Squid fisheries make a rather small contribution to world landings from capture fisheries relative to that of fish, but the proportion has increased steadily over the last decade, with some signs of recent leveling off. The present overview describes all substantial squid fisheries around the globe. The main ecological and biological features of exploited stocks, and key aspects of fisheries management are presented for each commercial species of squid worldwide. The history and fishing methods used in squid fisheries are also described. Special attention has been paid to interactions between squid fisheries and marine ecosystems including the effects of fishing gear, the role of squid in ecosystem change induced by overfishing on groundfish, and ecosystem-based fishery management.