Abstract: This study analyzes the most severe dust event in Taiwan in the last 20 years. The dust event occurred from March 19 to 25, 2010, with PM10 (particular matter less than 10 μm) reaching a maximum beyond 1200 μg m^(-3), and dust accounting for over 90% of the concentrations in Taiwan. The severe event originated from Mongolia on March 19, and the widespread dust moves southeastward toward Taiwan, with a thickness of 1 to 2 km near the ground. The concentrated dust layer can enhance phytoplankton bloom due to deposition of crustal nutrients, including iron. Over the marginal sea of China, the total deposition of soluble iron is estimated to be about 3926 μg m^(-2) during the event, and the chlorophyll-a concentrations over the East China Sea are enhanced by an average of approximately 0.6 mg m^(-3) and 1.5 mg m^(-3) in the first and second weeks, respectively, after the dust passage.