Abstract: Anti-Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 (HpHSP60) antibodies are usually found in H. pylori-infected patients and are known to be associated with the progression of gastric diseases. However, the effects of these antibodies on the functions of HpHSP60 have not been identified. This study aims to investigate the effects of the interaction between anti-HSP60 antibodies and HpHSP60 on inflammatory responses. Anti-HpHSP60 polyclonal sera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced to evaluate their effects on HpHSP60-induced IL-8 and TNF-α activity. The results indicated that anti-HpHSP60 polyclonal sera collected from patients infected with H. pylori or from rabbit and mice immunized with HpHSP60 could significantly enhance HpHSP60-mediated IL-8 and TNF-α secretion from monocytic THP-1 cells. Similar effects were also found with anti-HpHSP60 mAbs. Further analysis revealed that this phenomenon was only carried out by anti-HpHSP60 antibody but not by other non-specific mAbs. Moreover, the non-specific mAbs decreased the synergism of HpHSP60 and anti-HpHSP60 mAbs in proinflammatory cytokine induction. Herein, we have examined the role of anti-HpHSP60 antibody in host immune responses for the first time. This study demonstrated that H. pylori HSP60/mAbs could modulate helicobacterial pathogenesis by increasing IL-8 and TNF-α production. The pathogen-specific antibodies may execute potential immune functions rather than recognize or neutralize microbes.