Abstract: The toxicity and species of dried dressed fish fillets were investigated. Three of seven dried dressed fish fillets were found to be toxic, with their levels of toxicity ranging from 9 to 18 mouse units per g. The toxin preparation was further purified and identified as tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The species of these fillets could not be distinguished from Lagocephalus lunaris by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis or restriction site and sequence analysis of a polymerase chain reaction amplicon of the cytochrome b gene. These fish fillets were identified as L. lunaris on the basis of their protein patterns and gene characteristics. Furthermore, the toxic samples contained low levels of tetrodotoxin and its derivative.