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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/36280

Title: 臺灣遠洋鮪漁業政策之研究
Study on the Distant Water Tuna Fishery Policy in Taiwan
Authors: Kuo-Huan Ting
丁國桓
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science
國立臺灣海洋大學:環境生物與漁業科學學系
Keywords: 臺灣;遠洋鮪漁業;漁業政策;責任漁業;SWOT分析;PDCA循環;MCS措施
Taiwan;Distant water tuna fisheries;Fishery policy;Responsible fisheries;SWOT analysis;PDCA cycle;MCS measures
Date: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-10-07T03:05:39Z
Abstract: 鮪類為全球重要的經濟魚種,遠洋鮪漁業亦為我國與公海的主力漁業,政府相當重視其持續發展,因此在密切關注國際鮪漁業管理之動態與趨勢下,會適時推出相應之調適政策,而正確的有前瞻性的政策將導引鮪產業立於不敗之地。本研究以2005年ICCAT制裁事件後政府所積極回應的兩大鮪漁業政策為主軸,透過政策科學的基本理念,以文獻分析法、深度訪談法、SWOT分析與PDCA管理循環,從產、官、學的立場客觀地綜合分析臺灣遠洋鮪漁業政策之執行成效及其所衍生的問題,最後提出政策之調適建議,以提供漁政機關未來在制定鮪漁業政策時之參考。研究結果摘要如下: 鮪漁業為國際性產業,對提供人類優質蛋白質、確保區域經濟發展與勞動力僱用扮演重要角色。臺灣雖然國際地位特殊,但由於漁民勤奮與捕魚技術精湛,因此在全球鮪漁業的捕撈與管理上佔有不容忽視、舉足輕重之地位。惟2005年ICCAT No. 05-02事件後,證明臺灣過去的鮪漁業政策與管理確有檢討與調整之必要,政府不得不順勢於2006年提出「遠洋漁業管理與產業重整方案」,2012年期滿後提出延續性深化鮪漁業管理之「遠洋漁業永續方案」,這兩項政策可謂是臺灣近年來特別針對加強遠洋鮪漁業管理的漁業政策。 國際鮪漁業管理法制之演變與鮪漁業之發展息息相關,國際鮪漁業管理法制之發展,大致可分為以下三個階段:第一階段是《聯合國海洋法公約》(UNCLOS)生效前的自由捕魚時代(1982年以前);第二階段為《聯合國海洋法公約》通過至FAO責任漁業行為守則通過前(1982-1994年),遠洋作業漁場受限被迫轉移到公海地區作業,前二階段仍屬於公海自由原則;第三階段,1995年FAO通過負責任漁業行為守則至今(1995年至今),其間聯合國的遵守協定與跨界魚類種群協定,以及負責任漁業行為守則及其所衍生的國際四大行動計畫,使區域性漁業管理組織成為公海漁業資源管理的主體,並對公海捕魚作了更嚴格的規定,促使國際鮪漁業管理更臻完善。 國際鮪漁業組織之管理趨勢主要有:(1)漁撈能力之管控;(2)根絶IUU捕魚行為;(3)減少混獲;(4)公海登臨和檢查制度;(5)加強對24公尺以下漁船之管理;(6)提高區域觀察員覆蓋率比例;(7)漁獲統計證書制度與貿易措施;(8)E化設備;(9)導入基於生態系的漁業管理;(10)加強漁業管理的合作;(11)船旗國在公海漁業活動中將承擔更大的責任;(12)加強科學性資源評估;(13)大型圍網FADs之管理對策;(14)蓄養鮪魚之管理。 我國因國際地位特殊,在現行專屬經濟區之架構下不利於我國遠洋鮪漁業之發展。雖然各種漁業合作模式使產業經營獲得舒緩,但實際運作上我國船東仍存在許多風險。 臺灣的遠洋鮪漁業政策的發展歷程大致可分為:發展期(1950年~1979年)、轉型期(1980年~1990年)、管理期(1991年~2005年)、國際主導期(2006年~訖今)等4個階段。早期政策均納入四年經建計畫中,到1979年才有專屬之「遠洋漁業發展方案」,復於1987年擴大為「漁業發展方案」,2006年才有針對鮪之「遠洋漁業管理及產業重整方案」及其延續性之2012年「遠洋漁業永續方案」。 「遠洋漁業管理與產業重整方案」之政策目標旨在導正過去產業違反國際規範之行為,因此具體執行計畫為調整漁撈能力與改善遠洋漁業管理,主要在於減船並實施MCS強化管理,以及透過立法來遏止洗魚,同時提供墊借互助補償金之配套措施以協助業者渡過難關。「遠洋漁業永續方案」係延續性政策,重點在於持續落實MCS措施並打擊IUU漁業行為與提升漁獲統計品質及研究強度。此外亦加入因應海盜、加強與沿岸國合作等對策。 現行政策之問題主要有:(1)政策執行缺乏財政與人力支持。實施MCS所需投入的管理成本和人力相對較高。(2)政策轉移後缺乏完善的配套措施,例如大型鮪釣業者在No. 05-02事件後,配合政策進行減船所衍生的負債問題目前仍無配套措施;新政策鼓勵船東在地化投資,以因應資源國運用資源策略思維的改變,但目前政策並沒有任何實質上的協助。(3)政策調整的靈活度不足。國際環境瞬息萬變,大型鮪釣與小型鮪釣之經營亦是如此,但大目鮪配額分配並沒有進行相應的調整。(4)公眾參與機制有待提升。例如小型鮪釣的意見長期被忽略不受重視。至於業者對統計資料配合度不高的原因,發現政府與業界雙方的溝通有待改善。(5)政策主導者的立場。例如不重視科學研究,以致業者也不尊重科研。(6)現行官僚體制的問題。管理者因業務煩忙,故心態多以能不出事就好。在其他利益因素考量下,國家外交政策長期沒有結合漁業外交。FOC漁船控管的法令已公佈實施多年,但目前仍無法確實掌握FOC漁船。 近年來臺灣鮪漁業管理是將區域性漁業管理組織的規定內化成國內管理措施,故現行鮪漁業政策與「遵守協定」和「種群協定」的原則一致,且國內法律早已相應進行調整。顯示臺灣雖然國際地位特殊,但仍積極善盡船旗國與船主國應有的責任與義務,致力於鮪資源之永續利用。 本研究最後提出臺灣遠洋鮪漁業之政策調適建議,包含:(1)持續投入管理經費以落實MCS措施、(2)加強與沿岸國合作、(3)完善遠洋鮪漁業政策之配套措施、(4)協助產業進行結構轉型以提昇產業之競爭、(5)培育國際談判人才,積極參與國際漁業會議、(6)提升遠洋鮪漁業政策之靈活度。
Tuna is a globally important economic fish. Being a major fishery industry in Taiwan and at high sea, the government places tremendous emphasis on distant water tuna fishery and its sustainable development. As changes and trends in international tuna fishery management are developed, the government would adopt their policies accordingly. Appropriate and proactive policies are therefore essential to the survival of tuna industry. In 2005, the government adopted two major policies in response to ICCAT's sanction on Taiwan. This study examines the effects and aftermaths of these policies under the concept of policy science, through the use of document analysis, in-depth interview, SWOT analysis, and PDCA management cycle from a industrial, governmental and academic perspective. Appropriate strategies are derived to serve as reference for future policy-making. Summary of the study is as follows: Tuna industry is an internationalized industry; not only is it a source of excellent protein, but it also assumes the vital role of securing regional economic development and labor employment. Though Taiwan is in a unique diplomatic position, its outstanding fishy technique and diligent fishing population have given it an influential position in tuna catch and management that cannot be overlooked. The 2005 ICCAT's sanction on Taiwan, however, showed that tuna policies and management in Taiwan were in need of review and changes. In 2006, the government adopted a six-year Proposal for Distant Water Fishery Management and Industrial Restructuring. When the project ended in 2012, the Proposal for Sustainable Distant Water Fishery was called to strengthen the management of tuna industry. These two policies are specific tuna management policies that were adopted in Taiwan in recent years. Changes in international tuna industry management laws have a direct effect on the development of tuna industry. The history of such changes can be divided into three stages. The first stage is the pre-1982 era of UNCLOS, when free fishing was allowed. The second stage is the time period between 1982 and 1994, after the passing of UNCLOS but before the passing of FAO's Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. During this time period, distant fishing grounds were restricted and fishing activities were moved to high sea. Fishing activities During these first two stages followed the principle of freedom at high sea. After the passing of FAO's Code of Conduct, concessions to two United Nations' agreements and four major IPOA initiatives allowed regional fishery management organizations to become the main body for high sea resource management. These organizations set stricter regulations on high sea fishing, which in turn allowing for more comprehensive international tuna fishery management. Management trends in international tuna industry organizations include: (1) monitoring fishing capacity, (2) eliminating IUU fishing activities, (3) reduction by-catch, (4) approaching and inspection system for high seat, (5) strengthening management of fishing vessels under 24 meters, (6) improving regional observer coverage, (7) certification system for fish catch statistics and trade measures, (8) digitalization of facilities, (9) introducing ecosystem-based fishery management, (10) strengthening fishery management cooperation, (11) flag states assuming more responsibilities for high sea fishing activities, (12) strengthening scientific assessment of resources, (13) countermeasures for FDA's large-scale purse seiners, (14) management of tuna farming. Given its unique international status, distant tuna industry in Taiwan faces many barriers under the EEZ framework. Although the difficulties the industry encounters can be relieved through cooperation agreements, in practice, there are still many risks. Taiwan's policies on distant tuna fishery can be divided into four stages: (1) in the developmental stage (1950s-1979), the government invested extensive resources to encourage distant tuna industry. (2) During the transformational stage (1980s-1990s), the industry switched to purse seine as driftnet and trawling were regulated by international regulations and fishing grounds became restricted. (3) Excessive development in the management stage (1991-2005) gave rises to policies to reduce fishing capacity, while at the same time implementing management measures with international regional fishery management organizations. (4) The international dominant stage (2006~present) sees an influx of funding to implement MCS' management measures, and establishing clear policies through revising regulations and adopting new ones. “The Proposal for Distant Water Fishery Management and Industrial Restructuring” was set up to rectify industrial activities that violated international regulations. In practice, the Proposal adjusted fishing capacity and improved distant fishery management to reduce the number of fishing vessels and implement MCS management. It also established legislations to stop fish laundering and provided financial aid to help fishing operators overcome the transitional hardship. “The Proposal for Sustainable Distant Water Fishery”, on the other hand, is a continuing policy, whose main focus is to carry out existing MCS measures and combat IUU fishing activities, and to also improve the quality of fish catch statistics and research. This proposal also contains measures for stronger cooperation with coastal nations and countermeasures against pirates. The issues in the current policy include: (1) A lack of financial and human resource support. The costs on the management and human resource are comparatively high in the adoption of MCS. (2)A lack of supporting policies, eg., there is no solution to the debts incurred in the reduction of vessels and the issues in local investments. (3)A lack of timely response to international changes, eg., no adjustment is made of the quota of big-eye tuna. (4)Public participation to certain fishery issues needs to be promoted. The mutual communication between the government and fishery business is required. (5) Policy makers’ ignorance of scientific research. (6) The bureaucracy. In most cases, the national policies are incompatible with fishery diplomacy. Recent years, Tuna industry management in Taiwan adopted regional management organizations regulations to its national management measures. Therefore its tuna industry policies and regulations are in line with the principles of the Compliance Agreement and UNFSA. This is an indication that Taiwan is active in assuming its responsibility as a flag state in the sustainable use of tuna resources, despite its unique international status. This study proposed that tuna fisheries policy adjustment recommendations including: (1) keeping investing funding for management to carrying out MCS measures, (2) strengthening the cooperation with other coastal nations, (3) enhancing the supporting measures for distant water tuna industry policies, (4) supporting the industry in structural transformation to improve competitiveness, (5) cultivating talents for international negotiation and active participation in international fishery conferences, (6) enhancing flexibility in distant water tuna fishery policies.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0D93310002
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/36280
Appears in Collections:[環境生物與漁業科學學系] 博碩士論文

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