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On Elderly Poverty
|Authors: ||Wei-Feng Hung|
|Contributors: ||NTOU:Institute of Applied Economics|
Old-age economic security;Income;Consumption;Poverty;National transfer accounts
|Issue Date: ||2013-10-07T03:04:29Z
|Abstract: ||現今全球均面臨人口老化的強力衝擊，台灣的老化速度更快，未來社會的高齡人口占比越來越高，連帶發生政府財務負擔、青壯年人口負擔、家庭扶養與貧窮率升高等不利影響。為了因應老化的衝擊，如何能更加清晰的了解高齡者的貧窮問題與其所面臨的經濟安全現況，乃是本研究所聚焦的重點。本研究利用2005年與2010年家庭收支調查資料進行年度比較，首先以貧窮三分法去分析不同家戶型態中的高齡者家戶的貧窮情況，再將討論範圍從家戶拓展到個人，去了解高齡者是否容易落入貧窮。接著，再按照上述方法所分出的個別貧窮型態，進一步運用國民移轉帳方法去討論各類貧窮高齡者消費與所得的差異，並加入了過去少有討論的公部門消費與家庭內移轉等層面，以瞭解政府、自身與家庭對未來高齡者經濟安全所扮演的角色。 文中主要發現有四項： 一、單人老人戶、夫妻老人戶與祖孫戶面臨到的三種貧窮風險比起其他類型家戶要來的高，是較值得關心的經濟弱勢者。二、以個人來看，高齡者確實相對於青壯年與幼年人口更容易陷入三種類貧窮，且隨著年份增加而更易落入貧窮。三、公部門的消費有助拉近貧者與非貧者的消費水準，換言之，政府的公部門消費具有重分配的功能。四、家庭內移轉功能只有在所得消費皆不低的高齡者才有明顯發揮，而淨資產收入中也只有僅消費低與所得消費皆不低的高齡者有相對高的金額，至於僅所得低與雙重貧窮者因上述兩類來源不足，因而高度依賴政府移轉。 過去的文獻發現隨著人口老化與家庭變遷，家庭移轉功能和老人本身的資產重配置功能似有減弱趨勢，政府功能則不斷提高。然而本文的研究結果顯示，政府移轉功能在未來可能受高齡化與少子化的影響而有所壓縮，假使高齡貧窮者仍高度依賴政府移轉，未來老人貧窮問題可能惡化，政府與個人應及早對此有所體認，並設定適當政策。|
The great impact of population aging is a major challenge facing the world today. The speed of population aging in Taiwan is even faster than anywhere else, which brings pressure to the government, society, family, and the individual as well. This research addresses the issue of old-age poverty. We use the Survey of Family Income and Expenditure conducted by the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics of 2005 and 2010. Two approaches are adopted. The first one uses a dual classification scheme to decide which households are considered poor, with respect to either income or consumption. We then look into the income and consumption of individuals when households are classified in this scheme. A second approach is used to discuss the difference of consumption and income in poor elderly, using the methodology of National Transfer Accounts (NTA, hereafter). Under the modified NTA framework, we are able to take public-sector consumption and intra-familial transfer into account, while these variables are important but hardly estimated in the past due to lack of proper methodology. Major findings are as follows: (1) Among elderly households, single, couple and three-generation households face higher risk of poverty than other households. Hence they deserve particular attention. (2) Viewing from the perspective of individuals, elders are far easier to be poor than other age groups, and the situation worsens over time. (3) Public-sector consumption helps to reduce the gap in consumption between poor and non-poor elders. In other words, public-sector consumption serves to “reallocate” resources to the poor. (4) The function of intra-familial transfer is apparent only in non-poor elders. Net asset incomes are higher for the elderly who are non-poor regarding income. And elders with low income rely heavily on government transfer. The literature has found that, population aging and changing family structure weaken the function of intra-familial transfer and lower net asset incomes of the elderly, while the importance of government transfer continues to increase. This paper has shown that the latter will likely be compressed in the future. However, if poor elders still depend on government transfer, old-age poverty could get a lot worse. In this regard, the government and individuals must have a more clear understanding of old-age poverty, and set up proper policies in advance.
|Appears in Collections:||[應用經濟研究所] 博碩士論文|
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