|Abstract: ||近年來亞太區域航運發展迅速，各國不斷闢建新機場和更新老舊機場之硬體設施，而身處亞太區域的桃園機場，營運至今約三十年，老舊的硬體設施似乎不足以應付日益龐大的客運量以及貨運量，因此本研究將以資料包絡法分析2009年至2011年亞太區域12座國際機場之營運效率，並以Tobit迴歸估計式分析是否和效率值有顯著相關，最後根據分析結果，提供桃園機場未來可改善之方向。另外，以時間序列分析的共整合檢定，分析亞太區域機場之客運量與貨運量之間是否存在互補或替代的關係。最後探討可能影響效率之變數，。 實證顯結果顯示：根據資料包絡法效率值分析結果，在2009年至2011年12座機場36個樣本，其平均整體技術效率值分別為0.808、0.897、0.914，平均純技術效率值分別為0.89、0.956、0.97，平均規模效率值分別為0.938、0.939、0.94，以上三種效率值皆有逐年上升的趨勢，且純技術效率值在2009年至2011年分別有4、8、6個樣本表現為相對有完全效率，而台灣桃園機場的純技術效率分別為1、1、0.993，在2011年，純技術效率值未達到1，表示桃園機場在資源運用方面是相對無效率的。 根據差額分析結果，在2009年至2011年12座機場36個樣本，產出項部分，三年皆以貨運量成長的空間最大，投入項部分，三年皆以機場面積的無謂投入最多，而桃園機場在2009年及2010年皆位於效率前緣上，表示資源運用是有效率的，但是在2011年營業成本有0.087億美元的無謂投入占其總業成本的2.9%。 根據敏感度分析結果，在2009年至2011年12座機場36個樣本，產出項部分，三年皆以客運量對純技術效率值的影響最大，投入項部分，三年皆以機場面積對純技術效率值的影響最大，桃園機場在產出項部分，三年皆以客運量對純技術效率值影響最大，投入項部分，三年皆以登機門個數對純技術效率值影響最大。 根據共整合分析結果，在客運量部分，有14組變數之間存在替代關係，有6組變數之間存在互補關係，當中成田機場和雪梨機場、新加坡樟宜機場、上海浦東機場、吉隆坡機場、仁川機場之間存在互補關係，和白雲機場之間存在替代的關係，當成田機場受到311大地震和釣魚台事件的影響造成旅客量下降時，其餘5座機場受到成田機場旅客量下降之影響，其旅客量也會下降。和成田機場有替代關係之機場，受到成田機場旅客量下降之影響反而造成其旅客量上升。 而桃園機場和白雲機場、仁川機場、吉隆坡機場、上海浦東機場、新加坡樟宜機場、雪梨機場之間存在替代關係，和香港機場之間存在互補關係，若旅客受到上述事件的影響而取消赴日行程轉往台灣旅遊時，桃園機場因而旅客量上升，則和桃園機場有替代關係之機場，其旅客量會因此下降。和桃園機場有互補關係之機場，其旅客量則會因此上升。 在貨運量部分，有5組變數之間存在替代關係，有1組變數之間存在互補關係，當中桃園機場和香港機場、吉隆坡機場、樟宜機場之間存在替代關係，表示若1座機場之貨運量發生變動時，其餘3座機場之貨運量也會成呈反向變動。桃園機場和仁川機場之間存在互補關係，表示其中一座機場之貨運量變動時，另一座機場之貨運量會呈同向變動。 分析完亞太區域機場2009年至2011年之營運效率，另外應用Tobit迴歸分析效率之影響因子，機場之經營型態、機場啟用年數、人均GDP、城市人口以及和市中心的距離，是否會影響機場之營運效率，分析結果顯示機場之經營型態之估計係數為正值，表示民營機場之純技術效率值明顯高於國營機場，而機場啟用年數之估計係數為負值，表示機場啟用年數越久則純技術效率值也會隨之減少，人均GDP、城市人口、和市中心距離之估計係數皆為正值，表示當此三項變數變動時，純技術效率值也會成同向變動，在這五項變數中，機場啟用年數以及機場與市中心距離和純技術效率值不顯著相關，其餘3項變數皆和純技術效率值顯著相關，在2010年和2011年效率值之估計係數皆為正值，表示2010年和2011年的效率值是高於2009年的效率值，表示在這兩年金融海嘯對機場之純技術效率的影響可能不大，但是這兩年效率值和2009年效率值皆為不顯著相關。|
In recent years, the development of the aviation industry in Asia-Pacific is very quick, every countries continue building the new airports and update the hardware facilities of old airport. Taoyuan International Airport which is located in the Asia-Pacific area has been in operation for about thirty years. The old hardware facilities seem insufficient to handle with the large number of passengers volume and cargos volume. Therefore, this research will use DEA to analysis the twelve airports’ operational efficiency in Asia-Pacific area from 2009 to 2011. In addition to efficiency, using Tobit regression to discuss the variables that may affect the efficiency whether significantly correlate with efficiency or not. According to the results, that can provide the improvement of Taoyuam airport in the future. In addition, using time-series analysis of cointegration test to analysis whether exist complementary or alternative relationships between passenger volume and cargo volume in twelve airports. According to the results which is analysis by DEA, there are thirty-six samples of twelve airports from 2009 to 2011, the average overall technical efficiency value from 0.808 in 2009, 0.956 in 2010, 0.97 in 2011. The average pure technical efficiency values are 0.89 in 2009, 0.956 in 2010, 0.97 in 2011. The average scale efficiency values are 0.938 in 2009, 0.939 in 2010, 0.94 in 2011.Above these three types of efficiency have individually increasing trend. There are 4 samples of pure technical efficiency are relatively efficiency in 2009, 8 samples of pure technical efficiency are relatively efficiency in 2010, 6 samples of pure technical efficiency are relatively efficiency in 2011. The pure technical efficiency of Taoyuan international airport is 1 in 2009, 1 in 2010, 0.993 in 2011. In 2011, the pure technical efficiency of Taoyuan international airport is smaller than 1, indicating is relatively inefficient in using resources. According to the results of slack analysis, there are thirty-six samples of twelve airports from 2009 to 2011. In the part of output variables, cargo has the largest space of grow up in three years. In the part of inputs, airport space is the unnecessarily input in three years. The efficiency of Taoyuan International airport locates in the efficient frontier in 2009 and 2010, it means that the using of resources is efficient. However there is unnecessarily input about 0.087 million US dollars of the operating cost which is part of 2.9% in 2011. According to the results of sensitivity analysis, there are thirty-six samples of twelve airports from 2009 to 2011. In the part of output variables, the passenger volume has the greatest impact to pure technical efficiency in three years. In the part of input variables, the airport space has the greatest impact to pure technical efficiency in three years. The passenger volume of Taoyuan airport has the greatest impact to pure technical efficiency in three years. Boarding gate of input variables of Taoyuan airport has the greatest impact to pure technical efficiency in three years. According to the results of cointegration analysis. In the part of passenger volume there are fourteen sets of variables have substitute relationship and six sets of variable have complementary relationship. In fourteen sets of variable, there is complementary relationship between Narita Airport, Sydney Airport, Singapore Changi Airport, Shanghai Pudong Airport, Kuala Lumpur Airport and Incheon Airport. In six sets of variables, there is exist substitute relationship between Narita Airport and Baiyun Airport. When the passenger volume of Narita Airport has reduction because of 311 earthquake and the sovereign rights of Diaoyu Islands, the passenger volume of the airports which have substitute relationship to Narita Airport also have reduction because of the reduction of the Narita Airport. The passenger volume of the airport which has complementary relationship to Narita Airport has increase because of the reduction of the Narita Airport. There is substitute relationship between Taoyuan Airport, Baiyun Airport, Incheon airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Shanghai Pudong Airport, Singapore Changi Airport and Sydney Airport. There is complementary relationship between Hong Kong airport and Taoyuan Airport. If passengers cancel the trip to Japen because of 311 earthquake and Diaoyu Islands result in increasing the passenger volume of Taoyuan Airport. Then the passenger volume of the airport has complementary relationship with Taoyuan Airport will increase. Then passenger volume of the airport has complementary relationship with Taoyuan Airport will decrease. In the part of cargo, there are five sets have substitute relationship between Taoyuan International Airport, Hong Kong International Airport, Kuala Lumpur Airport and Changi Airport. Substitute relationship means that if the cargo of one airport has movement, than the cargo of the other three airports has inversely movement. There is complementary relationship between Taoyuan International Airport and Incheon Airport. It means that if the cargo of one airport has movement, than the cargo of the other airport has positively movement. After analyzing the operational efficiency of Asia-Pacific Regional Airport from 2009 to 2011.Using Tobit regression to analysis the factors including the operating style of airport is government-owned businesses or privately owned businesses, the years of airport from start using to now, per capita GDP, the population of the city and the distance from airport to downtown, whether these five factors affect the operational efficiency of the airport. According to the results, the estimated coefficients of the operating style of airport is positive, it means that the pure technical efficiency of privately owned businesses airport is higher than government-owned businesses airport. The estimated coefficient of the years of airport is negative, it means that the years of airport is longer than the pure technical efficiency is lower. The estimated coefficient of per capita GDP, the population of the city and the distance from airport to downtown are positive, it means that when these three variables increase, the pure technical efficiency also increase on the same time. In these five variable the years of airport and the distance from airport to downtown are not significantly correlative with pure technical efficiency. Other three variables are significantly correlative with pure technical efficiency. The coefficients of the pure technical efficiency in 2010 and 2011 are positive, it means that the pure technical efficiency in 2010 and 2011 are higher than the pure technical efficiency in 2009. It indicates that the impact of financial tsunami to the efficiency of airports is probably very small and the pure technical efficiency in 2010 and 2011 are not significantly correlative with pure technical efficiency in 2009.