|Abstract: ||全球貿易經過長時間的發展至今，國際貿易理論也隨著時間的更迭不斷地持續更新與修正。過往李嘉圖學派的比較利益原則長期主宰了各國決定出口何項產品，但近年來，有不同於以往的觀點出現。諸多相關文獻提及，高所得國家樂於出口和進口高品質產品，而這些高品質產品，是以產品品質為競爭關鍵，品質越高越能克服距離障礙出口至較遠的國家；相對地，發展中國家出口多為價格競爭產品，即為以價格為競爭關鍵，必須壓低價格才可出口至遠的國家。因此，本文即仿效Baldwin and Ito (2011），利用出口品價格和出口距離之間的關係來檢視近十年全球出口概況和全球主要出口國出口品屬性。實證結果發現（1）在全球觀點下，2000年至2004年全球出口導向以出口價格競爭產品為主，2005年之後出口轉為品質競爭導向。（2）以國家整體觀點，德、美、日、台、韓出口導向皆為品質競爭導向；中國在2005年也由價格競爭轉為品質競爭導向。（3）以產業觀點，德、美、日在技術性密集產業出口品屬性皆為品質競爭導向，中國為價格競爭導向。（4）就出口品品質競爭程度而言，屬德國和美國最高，台灣和韓國有下降之趨勢。總結而言，本文希望藉由觀察出口導向來窺視一國經濟發展程度，也可進而瞭解各國各產業出口競爭優勢變化。|
Since a long period of trade development, trade theory has been updated over time. In the past, Ricardian principle of comparative advantage has long dominated the countries decided what to export, but in recent years, the point of view was different from the previous. According to much literature, developed countries are willing to export and import high quality products which is quality-competition, and the higher quality products are more able to overcome trade barriers to export to distant countries. However, developing countries export more price-competition goods, it must lower price to export distant countries. Therefore, this paper followed Baldwin and Ito (2011) and adopted the relationship between products of unit value and export distance to classify global exports in recent decades. The results show that (1) In global perspective, from 2000 to 2004 the global export-oriented was price-competition, it transferred to quality-competition after 2005. (2) Overall national perspective, export-oriented in Germany, the United States, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan were quality-competition, and after 2005 China’s export-oriented became quality-competition. (3) In industry perspective, Germany, the United States, Japan in capital intensive industry were quality-competition, but China was price-competition. (4) Germany and the United States had power ability to export quality-competition goods than other countries, but Taiwan and Korea’s ability had downward trend.