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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/35604

Title: 慢速航行對託運人及承攬業者的衝擊及因應策略
The impact of slow steaming on shippers' and forwarders' management strategy
Authors: Min-Lang Cheng
鄭敏郎
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Shipping and Transportation Management
國立臺灣海洋大學:航運管理學系
Keywords: 貨櫃船隊;減速慢行;IPA
Ocean container carriers;Slow steaming;IPA
Date: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-10-07T02:56:39Z
Abstract: 近來船舶大型化、航商加強聯盟合作及船用燃油高漲是海運界所關注相當重要的三個主要議題。眾所皆知,航商在二十一世紀初期在一片看好航運市場下航商紛紛預定大型船舶,但卻在交期時卻遇上經濟危機,2009年全球前25大航商虧損超過150億美元,其主要原因可歸咎於高居不下的油價、運力過剩、需求減少及運費下跌。航商為了確保營利而實施一連串的相關措施,如船舶減速慢行、燃油避險、航線調整及航商加強聯盟合作。其中最有效、最關鍵的控制成本方式為實施減速慢行,不但可以減少燃油支出也可以有效的吸收多餘的運力及降低溫室氣體排放,全球整體航商於2010年獲利近140億美元。 根據統計2011年,貨櫃航速平均降低13%,由24-25節降至21節(Slow steaming),或是18節(Extra-slow steaming)甚至低到15節(Super slow steaming),此減速慢行卻也造成貨主的庫存增加及前置時間的延長。 而本研究對於貨櫃航商實施減速慢行藉由經問卷詢問其他貨櫃航商、海運貨運承攬業者及直接貨主,以「重要性重要表現程度分析法」(IPA)方法所得之重要度與衝擊度評估,找出高度重要且衝擊度大之問題為「優先處理」事項以及高度重要但衝擊度低為「未雨綢繆」之項目,本研究並比較貨運承攬業者與託運人對於慢速航行在各種服務屬性所產生的衝擊程度大小差異。研究結果發現,貨主與貨運承攬業者對於慢速航行衝擊程度的高低認知存在顯著差異,研究最後並針對貨運承攬業者提出改善策略建議。
The purpose of this thesis is to study the impact of the container vessel speed reduction which helps carriers reduce bunker cost and absorb additional capacity on shippers. Average vessel size increased, enhancing alliance co-operation between global carriers, and rising bunker cost are the main issues in the container shipping industry over the past few years. During the recession in 2009, the top 40 ocean container carriers have lost about 15 billion US dollars. The main reason of the heavy lost were attributed to higher bunker cost, over capacity, global economic recession, and low ocean freight. Carriers were taking several necessary measurements to turn to black, such as slow steaming, bunker hedges, choice the most economical routing, and intensify the alliance co-operation mechanism. Slow steaming is the key cost cutting measure not only to reduce the bunker cost but also to absorb the over capacity and reduce the CO2 emission from container ships. All ocean carriers were turning to profit in 2010. On average, global container ships has been cutting speed by 13% in 2011, reducing the sailing speed from 24-25 knots to 21 knots (slow steaming), 18 knots (extra slow steaming) or even 15 knots (super slow steaming). However, slow steaming also has some negative impact to the global supply chain, such as the increase of lead time, safety stock levels, and operating cash flow demand. This study has employed PZB Gap Analysis Model and conducts a survey to know the impact of slow steaming on shippers, NVOCCs and carriers. The research finding has revealed that there is a service quality perception gap between the shippers, NVOCCs, and carriers. Finally this study has used the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) technique to find the factors located in the priority quadrant. From ocean carriers’ perspective, bunker cost is found to be the only factor situated in the priority quadrant. From ocean freight forwarders’ and shippers’ perspective, cash flow management, stable and punctual shipping schedule are the three factors located in the priority quadrant. Suggestions and strategies to forwarders and carriers to minimize the impact of slow steaming are finally made.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G004004I005
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/35604
Appears in Collections:[航運管理學系] 博碩士論文

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