|Abstract: ||港口國管制（Port State Control, PSC）出自於國際海事組織（International Maritime Organization，簡稱IMO）所制定海上人命安全公約SOLAS 1974附錄第一章總則規則十九「管制」（Control）的規定，其附予IMO各締約國權限後，PSC隨著各項相關公約之陸續簽訂，至今已是船舶安全的一重要把關。惟港口國管制在其執行面上仍不免因港口國管制官員(Port State Control Officer, PSCO)的個人背景及素養而使得PSC的實際執行面產生了各種難以遵從的現象，更進而使得航商及船舶管理者在因應PSC時面臨了不知所措的因難與衝突，更進而使航商以消極的態度來處理PSC檢查事務，讓PSC的原有功能大打折扣，甚而失去了其意義。 是故，PSCO個人主觀認知和執法道德原則，深深影響航商因應港口國管制的態度及方針，更影響到次標準的船舶在此漏洞下，得以繼續以不夠符合航行安全的狀況自由航行於各海域、進出各國港口，嚴重影響海洋環境及航行安全，且在某些區域施行PSC檢查已流於形式或衍生成了特定人士用來獲得不法利益的根基，故本研究領域實為一項值得正視且急須深入探討有關PSCO的課題。 各港口國政府雖強調日益嚴格和廣泛地採取PSC的措施，但PSCO身為港口國管制真正執行核心的人，其個人檢查偏好與道德操守之良窳，將直接導致一個國家通商港口PSC的成敗。然PSCO每次PSC檢查對象與勘與情況未必相同，常無一致性執行檢查標準，也亦使航商難以適從，故航商如何因應PSCO的道德認知與審定船舶檢查結果，必須建立PSCO認定「明顯缺失」之標準作業處理準則，以及制定一套可供航運業者檢視PSCO搜尋、登輪檢查、審定受檢船舶的檢核評估資訊，實為燃眉之急。 為避免航商於船舶接受PSC檢查時，因PSCO的不當執行方式與惡意凌駕專業認知情形，使得船長無法依應有的規則配合PSC檢查，而產生被動消極的態度，本文將先利用文獻歸納分析法、案例比較分析法據訂出實地訪談問卷，透過發放回收、彙整填答者資料後，輔以重要性表現程度分析法運算分析，加上再度針對航商資深掌管PSC事務人員訪談，以期能凸顯出港口國管制官員的執行方式所造成港口國管制目前的困境，並整理出航商目前的因應方式，希望能找出一個港口國管制及航商都能雙贏的應對方法，進而讓港口國管制的效能真正可以達到預期的結果。 關鍵詞：港口國管制、檢查偏好、職業道德、重要表現程度分析法。|
Port State Control (PSC) was issued according to SOLAS 1974 Annex Chapter 1 General Regulation 19 “Control”, by IMO (International Maritime Organization). Which authorized IMO members the right of examination. And follow by many relevant regulations issued continually, PSC becomes important gatekeeper of ships safety. But in executation the background and accomplishment of Port State Control Officier (PSCO) effect the executation of PSC inspection, it makes ship owners, mangers do not know how to comply with the inspection. And caused them handle PSC inspection in negative. Original function of PSC reduced greatly, or even lost its meaning. PSCO subjective cognition and moral principles of law enforcement, deeply affected carriers in response to the attitude of PSC and direction, but also affected the sub-standrd vessels under this loophole, to continue to not comply with the safety of navigation conditions on the freedom of navigation in the waters, out of the national ports, seriously affecting the marine environment and navigation safety, and in some areas has become a mere formality PSC inspection purposes of derivatized to a particular person used to obtain illegal benefits foundation. So this field of research is indeed a wrothy face and the urgent need to explore in depth topics related PSCO. Although the Government of the port state stressed the increasingly stringent and extensive measures taken by PSC, but as a PSCO real execution cores, their personal preferences and ethics examination of virtue or vice, will lead directly to the success or failure of PSC of treaty ports. However every object exploration and circumstances of PSC inspection may differ, often without consistency checks in performed standards also makes it hard for the shipping companies to comply with. Therefore how to respond to the moral cognition and validation of PSC inspection result, it must create “obvious defects” standard operating management guidelines finds by PSCO. And make a plan for the shipping industry to view how PSCO search, boarding checks, validation subjects checklist for evaluating the ship is indeed urgent needs. To avoid captain could not make the rules in accordance become generate passive negative attitude when face PSC inspection, because of improper implementtion modalities PSCO overriding professional knowledge and malicious circumstances. This article will be summariezed and analyzed using the literature law, case law, according to set a comparative analysis of interview questionnaries compiled through the issue by recycling information, the importance of performance analysis (IPA) supplemented by operational analysis, together again interviews with senior staff of ship companies, who in-charged PSC services, in order to highlight the PSCO are executed casued by the current predicament of PSC, and organized said providers currently coping, hoping to find a PSC and ship companies can be a win-win way to deal with, and then let the performance of PSC can really achieve the desired result. Keywords: Port State Control; Examination Preferences; Professional Ethics; Important-Performance Analysis.