|Abstract: ||貨物裝船後，因託運人之請求，由船長、運送人或運送人之代理人簽發載貨證券(B/L)，以作為貨物之表徵，以示貨物之權利文書。於散裝運輸中，航運公司簽發傭船載貨證券(C/P B/L)輾轉轉讓至第三人手中時，若明確表明運送人身分者，B/L受讓人足以識別運送人之身分，一般較無爭議。若未明確表明運送人身分者，B/L受讓人未能知悉運送人之身分，易滋生運送人身分識別之爭議。尤以論時傭船契約下簽發之B/L，使運送人身分識別之問題更趨複雜。 然為解決運送身分識別之爭議，B/L應表明運送人之身分，由其負運送契約上之責任。於論時傭船契約下，B/L多由船長或其代理人簽發，且簽名欄註記‘For and/or On Behalf of the Master’，或類似之記載，又於背面加入「運送人身分(Identity of carrier)」或「轉責條款(Demise clause)」，則易使B/L受讓人選擇錯誤之求償對象，徒增貨損理賠之困難。因此，B/L應表明運送人之身分，並註記‘For and/or On Behalf of the (論時傭船人名稱), As Carrier’，則B/L受讓人明確知悉運送人之身分，可杜爭紛矣。 本文透過回顧文獻、探討運送人之身分，分析B/L上簽名欄之註記，及其背面「運送人身分」與「轉責條款」之效力，審視國際貿易信用狀統一慣例之規定，包含UCP 400、UCP 500及UCP 600，與國際海運公約之規定，包含1924年海牙規則、1968年海牙威斯比規則、1978年漢堡規則、1980年聯合國多式聯運公約及2009年鹿特丹規則，藉以釐清運送人身分識別之問題。並根據上述討論，提出我國海商法運送人身分識別之修正建議。|
After loading of the goods, the master、carrier or whose agent should issue a bill of lading upon demand of the shipper, as the legal document which demonstrate the rights of the goods. In bulk shipping sector, shipping companies issue charterparty bill of lading and then transferr to the third legal holder by endorsement. If the charterparty bill of lading clearly indicates the name of carrier, then the third legal holder could have enough information to identify the carriers’ identity.But if the charterparty bill of lading does not indicate the name of carrier, then the third legal holder may not able to identify the carrier. Under this situation, it would cause a dispute about the carrier identification. However, the problem about identification of carrier would be much more complicated while the charterparty bill of lading is issued under time charter. The name of carrier who has to bear the responsibility of the contract of carriage should be marked on bill of lading. Where the carrying vessel is under a time charter, the master or whose agent issue bill of lading, they would probably signed“For and/or On Behalf of the Master”in the signature block and add“Identity of Carrier”or“Demise clause”on the back side of bill of lading. It may make bills of lading holder to select the wrong claim object and have more difficulty on cargo claims. Therefore, if the identity of carrier is indicated on bill of lading and signed “For and/or On Behalf of the (Time Charterer’s name), As Carrier”. The bills of lading holder would know carrier's identity, and then the problem could be solved. In order to clarify the carrier’s identity, this article discusses identity of carrier by reviewing related literature, examining signature block on bill of lading, the identity of carrier and demise clause effect on the reverse, and also reviewing Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, UCP, which including UCP 400、UCP 500 and UCP 600, and international maritime convention, which including Hague Rules 1924, Hague-Visby Rules 1968, Hamburg Rules 1978, UN Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods 1980 and Rotterdam Rules 2009. Finally, this article concludes the discussions and amends suggestion about the identity of carrier under the Taiwan Maritime Commercial Rules.