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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/35008

Title: 利用SWMM評估透水舖面及植被過濾帶對長期水文之影響
Assessment the Long-term Hydrological Effect of Porous Pavement and Vegetative Swale with SWMM
Authors: Shu-Yu Lin
林書羽
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Harbor and River Engineering
國立臺灣海洋大學:河海工程學系
Keywords: 都市雨洪;透水舖面;植被過濾帶;SWMM;LID
Date: 2013
Issue Date: 2013-10-07T02:49:11Z
Abstract: 由於都市高度開發,不透水表面也隨之取代綠覆及裸露地,造成洪峰流量及地表逕流增加。傳統上利用末端控制的方法處理地表逕流,近年來為了滿足都市發展需求,因而有新的逕流管理概念發展出來。低衝擊開發技術(Low Impact Development)利用源頭分散管理的理念,利用天然的方式處理逕流,使都市水文平衡得以恢復,目前低衝擊開發技術在國內尚未盛行,相關之研究較缺乏。 有關評估低衝擊開發技術的降雨逕流模式也陸續開發。目前應用較為廣泛的為美國環保署發展的暴雨逕流管理模式(SWMM,Storm Water Management Model),SWMM 5.0.022為2011年推出之最新版本,新增了低衝擊開發技術的功能,其中設有入滲溝(Infiltration Trench)、雨水貯集設施(Rain Barrel)、生態滯留設施(Bio-Retention Cell)、透水舖面(Porous Pavement)、植被過濾帶(Vegetative Swale)等五項低衝擊開發技術。本研擬探討透水舖面及植被過濾帶兩項設施,選定新北市自強國中為研究區域。 首先蒐集研究地區模式建置所需資料,利用衛星影像判釋新北市自強國中不透水率及土地利用形態。再利用SWMM模式對案例地區進行模式建置,並將透水舖面及植被過濾帶依研究地區逕流路徑及適用位置為考量導入研究地區。其中透水舖面之型式為透水瀝青,瀝青舖面厚度為5cm,儲水層厚度為20cm,總面積為5843m^2;植被過濾帶之型式其頂部寬為5m,邊坡斜率3:1,縱向坡度1%,總面積為334m^2。利用台北市中正橋站兩小時延時五年重現期距設計降雨進行短期模擬,模擬導入設施後其洪峰和出流量控制效果,由於本研究並沒有實測資料,故對SWMM模式之待定參數進行敏感度分析,其中集水區取10個參數,影響出流體積之最敏感參數為Decay constant,影響洪峰流量之敏感參數為N-perv;透水舖面取9個參數,植被過濾帶取5個參數,影響出流體積及洪峰流量之最敏感參數分別為Storage Height及 Longth。並利用台北雨量站2010年至2012年逐時歷史降雨資料進行長期之影響分析,並繪出其流量歷時曲線分析。 對於台北市中正橋站兩小時延時五年重現期距設計降雨的短期模擬,可以發現應用透水舖面及植被過濾帶對於研究區域洪峰時刻的延後有限,不過洪峰流量及出流體積的消減效果明顯;對於台北雨量站2010年至2012年逐時歷史降雨資料進行的長期模擬結果得知,應用透水舖面及植被過濾帶對於降雨強度較小事件可以有效的處理逕流,且對於高強度的降雨亦有很好的功效,但是如果是對於連續的高強度降雨事件,則處理逕流的能力就會降低。
Due to urban development, most green space is replaced by impervious pavements. It results in increasing flood peak and flow volume that tradi-tionally is controlled by the end-of-pipe treatment method. To meet the rapid urban development, Low Impact Development (LID) that considers decentralized and source control concepts has been widely used for urban storm water management to restore the healthy water cycle. LID is not so popular in Taiwan. Therefore, research relative to LID is rare. There are a lot of tools for assessing the performance of LID having been developed. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) developed by US EPA is widely used for urban storm water management. In the SWMM version 5.0.022 developed in 2011 has functions of modeling five different LID methods such as: infiltration trench, rain barrel, bio-retention cell, po-rous pavement, and vegetative swale. Porous pavement and vegetative swale will be selected and studied in the research. Also Tzu-Chian junior high school, New Taipei city will be selected as the study area. Firstly, impervious ratio and land uses for the study area will be obtained through satellite image. Porous Asphalt is used which has 5 cm of surface thickness, 20 cm of storage thickness, and 5843 m2 of total area. Vegetative swale has 5m of top width, 3:1 side slope, 1% of longitude slope, and 334m2 of total area. Five year return period design storm with two hours duration from Chun-Chan bridge rainfall station, Taipei city, will be used to simulate the short term impact to flood peak and flow volume for before and after installation of LID. Because there is no measured flow data, parameters influenced to the model will be tested and sensitivity analysis will be studied. For sub-watershed, 10 parameters are selected and tested. The most sensitivity parameter to flood volume is Decay constant and N-perv to flood peak. For porous pavement and vegetative swale, 9 and 5 parameters are selected and tested respectively. From the results, the most sensitive parameter to both flood peak and volume for porous pavement and vegetative swell are Storage Height and Length, respectively. In the following, hourly rainfall data from Taipei rainfall station during years of 2010 to 2012 will be assessed for long-term impact analysis and flow dura-tion curves will be drawn and compared. For short-term simulation results, both porous pavement and vegetative swale have limited impact to time to peak but have more significant impact to both peak and volume reduction. For long-term simulation results, both porous pavement and vegetative swell have significant impact to events with small rainfall. They will also have satisfactory results for high intensity rainfall events. But they will decrease the efficiency for peak and volume reduction when there are continuous high intensity rainfalls.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0010052060
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/35008
Appears in Collections:[河海工程學系] 博碩士論文

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