|Abstract: ||類胡蘿蔔素是一個脂溶性，具有黃色至橙紅色的色素，可以自然的在光合生物 (PSB) 里找到。他們不至給微生物，植物和水生動物顏色，但也作為抗氧化劑 , 壓力和抗病 , 及免疫調節中發揮重要的作用。沸石粉是一個多孔性的礦物，非常豐富，成本低與有吸附性能，使它成為在治療和特定營養素的良好載體。研究的目的是以最大限度地提高豐年蝦無節幼蟲 , 水產養殖里最熱門的捕食動物; 的總類胡蘿蔔素含量, 利用沸石粉作為光合細菌的載體. 本研究進行了兩個實驗。第一個是評估沸石粉 , 絲光沸石-1作為 PSB, R. sphaeroides的載體，通過分析總類胡蘿蔔素含量 (TCC) 和豐年蝦腸道內容 (GC) 投餵兩天PSB與/或沸石粉。沒有餵食作為控制。結果顯示，PSB 的處理組有更高的TCC, GC和生存比未經的處理組。沸石粉既沒有增進，也沒有減少與PSB的效果。原因為豐年蝦的濾食性與PSB (1-2μm), 沒有被安置在沸石，絲光沸石-1 (6.18μm) 里。 第一個實驗的限制是沸石粉 會沉在水底部, 擾亂了豐年蝦對光合細菌和沸石粉混合物的濾食性，導致底TCC在處理組比起當當餵PSB , 並掩蓋了沸石粉作為載體的能力。因此，為了解決第一個實驗的限制，第二個實驗進行投餵豐年蝦配合飼料對與當當PSB 餌料24小時。在2x3因子實驗設計中分析與TCC和觀察豐年蝦成長。其實驗探討了三種餌料; 餌料1作為控制，包括沸石粉，魚油和卵磷脂; 餌料2包括當當PSB在三種不同的濃度 (25, 50, 100 mg/g); 餌料3包括沸石粉，魚油，卵磷脂和三種不同濃度的PSB。結果顯示1和 3 配合餌料有低TCC 比起餌料2 當當餵PSB, 表明了沸石粉，魚油，或卵磷脂其中一有對類胡蘿蔔素帶來負面的影響。 總之，這研究顯示了, 沸石粉，絲光沸石-1並不適合作為PSB的載體餵給豐年蝦。然而，在實驗設計上提供了改進的空間。沸石粉可以作為一個潛在的載體，如果它被作為一個配合餌料類似與微囊餌料滋養給豐年蝦。此配合餌料可以助於減少PSB 量，並提供更多的TCC給動物。在未來的研究中也建議了更進一步的探討沸石粉的特性，如吸附，孔徑和表面離子電荷，以評估沸石粉作為載體的能力。|
Carotenoids are lipid soluble, yellow to orange-red pigments which can be found naturally in photosynthetic organisms (PSB). They give not only colors to microorganisms, plants and, aquatic animals but also play important roles as antioxidants and, immunoregulators for stress and disease resistance. The porous mineral zeolite, being highly abundant, low-cost and with adsorption properties, makes itself a favorable carrier of therapeutics and specific nutrients. The objectives of this study were to maximize total carotenoids content in nauplii of Artemia sp., a popular prey organism in aquaculture, by using zeolite as a carrier for a PSB, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Two experiments were carried out in this study. The first one was to assess the ability of a zeolite, Mordenite-1 as a carrier of PSB by analyzing total carotenoid content (TCC) and gut content (GC) of Artemia fed with PSB and/or zeolite for two days. No feeding was regarded as control. The results showed treatments with PSB had higher TCC, GC and survival than treatments without. Zeolite did not enhance, although neither reduce PSB effect. The reason can be attributed to Artemia’s capability in filter-feeding PSB (1-2μm) without being accommodated in the zeolite, Mordenite-1 (6.18μm). The limitation in first experiment was found to be the tendency of zeolite to settle at the bottom of culture system. This was thought to disturbed the filter-feeding of Artemia on PSB and zeolite mixture, resulted in lower TCC than PSB only treatments, further masked the ability of zeolite as a carrier. Therefore, to solve this limitation, the second experiment was carried out through developing a formulated diet versus PSB only for Artemia enriched in 24 hours. TCC and Artemia growth was determined with 2x3 factorial experimental designs. Three diets were evaluated; diet 1 serve as control, consisted of zeolite, fish oil and lecithin; diet 2 consisted of PSB only in three concentrations (25, 50, 100 mg/g);and diet 3 consisted of zeolite, fish oil, lecithin and three PSB concentrations. The results showed that formulated diet 1 and 3 has lower TCC than diet 2 with PSB only; indicating that either zeolite, fish oil, or lecithin brings negative effect on the carotenoids. Overall, this study revealed zeolite, Mordenite-1 being incompatible as a carrier of PSB for Artemia. However, the study provides rooms for improvement in the experimental design. Zeolite could be use as a potential carrier if it was made into formulated diet similar as microencapsulated diet for Artemia enrichment. This formulated diet can help to reduce the amount of PSB and yet also gives more TCC to the animal. Also, it was suggested for future study to work in detail the properties of zeolite, such as adsorption, pore sizes and surface ionic charge so as to evaluate capability of zeolite as a carrier.