|Abstract: ||摘要:繁忙的港埠常會因設施容量(船席數與裝卸機具數)限制而形成尖峰瓶頸，因此造成船舶排隊等候進港的現象。因貨櫃船多有專屬船席，在外港錨區排隊等候進港裝卸的情況並不多見；反觀散裝船沒有專屬船席，在外港錨區排隊等候進港裝卸的情況則較為常見。運輸經濟學者建議對繁忙的設施實施等候定價，亦即對設施使用者徵收合理的等候收費，以消除或縮短排隊等候時間。在等候定價模式中，排隊等候時間之長度是影響均衡成本計算以及收費架構推導的關鍵。排隊等候時間長度取決於設施使用者之到達方式以及服務種類，散裝船為不定期船，屬於隨機到達方式，且裝卸貨物時需要多種服務(貨種多，如穀物、礦砂等)，故排隊等候時間長度不易估算。目前為止有關散裝船的等候定價文獻中，對於排隊等候時間長度之決定，完全忽視上述兩項特性。 本研究針對散裝船隨機到達且需要多種裝卸服務之特性，應用卜式分配計算期望值的手法建構散裝船排隊等候時間長度模式，並將其納入排隊等候成本模式中，以計算散裝船的均衡成本。接著基於均衡成本守恆的原則，推導出一系列等候收費架構，並分析收費實施後散裝船到港分散之結果。以上是目前有關船席等候定價文獻中尚未涉及之部分，可供航商及港務單位參考。|
Abstract:The peak-load bottleneck will often be arisen from a busy port’s limited facility capacity, e.g. the numbers of berths and handling equipments, causing the ships’ queuing phenomenon for entry. The reason is that most of the container ships have their specific berths, so normally they would not lead to queuing problems at the anchorage, yet the conditions are totally different for bulk ships which have to queue at the anchorage due to short of their particular berths. The transport economists suggest administering a queuing pricing policy for a busy port, i.e. executing a reasonable queuing toll collection for users, in order to eliminate or reduce queuing time spent. Under the queuing pricing model, the decision of the length of queuing time will be the key factor to affect how to count equilibrium costs and how to compute the toll scheme. More specifically, the length of queuing time spent is decided by users’ arrival way and handling service types. For example, bulk ship is classified as tramp, arriving in random way; additionally, it needs multiple handling services to handle variety of goods, such as mineral, cement, and ore, so it is hard to estimate its total queuing time spent. However, the queuing pricing literatures so far for bulk ships, related to the determination of the length of queuing time, extremely ignore the above two specific characteristics. Based on the characteristics of random arrival and multiple handling services requirements, this research establishes the length of queuing model by applying Poisson Distribution to calculate expected value for bulk ships, and it will be brought into contemplating the associated queuing cost model in order to compute the bulk ship’s equilibrium cost. Moreover, according to the principle of conservation of equilibrium cost, it would be helpful to derive a series of queuing toll scheme and to analyze the result of dispersing arrival time for bulk ships after implementing toll collection. The above description, regarding the ship's queuing pricing model, has not yet been concerned with the current literatures, while which may be a useful reference to ship owners and bureaus.