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题名: 北部各核能發電廠附近海域之生態調查
作者: 黃將修;胡健驊;方天熹;羅文增;程一駿;邵廣昭
贡献者: 國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋生物研究所
关键词: 核能電廠;海域生態;生態調查
Nuclear power plant;Ecology of coastal area;Ecological investigation
日期: 2009-01
上传时间: 2013-07-15T08:27:49Z
出版者: 經濟部國營事業委員會
摘要: 摘要:第一章 海流 海流調查的任務有三:(1)配合生化調查,提供現場流況;(2)進行北部核電廠排水口海域之海流調查;(3)探討近岸與離岸海域之海流空間結構及其演變方式。前兩項分四季之任務皆如期完成,主要使用海研二號的聲波都卜勒流剖儀ADCP和表水溫鹽儀,將生化調查航線的掃測結果展示在各測站上,供各子計畫引用。第三項工作則以ADP往復掃測排水口海域,其資料經「同時性處理」得到連續如動畫之網格化流場向量的時間序列,展現出外海流場規律的潮流演變模式及近岸受地形影響而有核一、核二及核四海域各具特點之互動潮流。外海瞬間的漲潮流往西北、退潮流往東南,而統計上有秋冬季西北流優勢、春夏時改東南流優勢的結果,是「黑潮水–東海水–台灣海峽水」在季風輪替中的典型現象。 第二章 水文水質 本計畫為核一廠與核二廠溫排水口海域生態調查研究與監測之一子計畫,為98年至99年度報告,著重在水文和水質變化對海域生態之影響。核一廠及核二廠溫排水口海域的各項水質化學濃度範圍為: 水溫,17.23-28.64℃;溶氧量,6.04-9.62mg/l;酸鹼度,7.76-8.27;磷酸鹽,0.001-0.024mg/l;亞硝酸鹽,0.001-0.023mg/l;硝酸鹽, 0.003-0.247mg/l;矽酸鹽,0.060-0.593mg/l;葉綠素甲,0.09-1.31g/l。所調查的水質化學顯示核一廠及核二廠海域得pH值與溶氧皆符合行政院環保署所規範之甲類海域環境品質標準。主成分統計分析結果顯示核二廠附近海域之浮游植物生態受到水溫及營養鹽影響,而核一廠受水文水質影響則不明顯。89-99年水質數據資料除了因受颱風及暖冬影響外,皆呈現規律性季節性變化。 99年核一廠及核二廠海域溫排水進、出水口沈積物重金屬總濃度範圍如下: 鎘,0.04-0.14 mg/kg;鈷,7.32-19.53 mg/kg;鉻,26.95-53.90 mg/kg;銅,9.75-28.62 mg/kg;錳,165-284 mg/kg;鎳,14.74-21.70mg/kg;鉛,26.27-63.14 mg/kg;鐵,0.81-1.83 % 和鋅,28.70-50.66mg/kg。98年至99年北部核廠電廠海域重金屬濃度鎘、鉻、銅、鉛及鋅等元素濃度皆遠小於行政院環保署之土壤管制標準,這些結果顯示北部核能廠附近海域尚未受到重金屬元素的污染。 第三章 浮游植物 今年(99年)四季共分析浮游植物樣品208瓶,並鑑出141種浮游植物,年平均豐度為3.22 ± 0.24×103 cells/L,約為去年的1.5倍左右。今年浮游植物種類數目及豐度呈明顯的季節變化,以第三季(7月)時之豐度最高,第二季(4月)最低。前五個主要優勢種類為菱形海線藻(Thalassionema nitzschioides)、柔弱擬菱形藻(Pseudonitzschia delicatissima)、扁面角刺藻(Chaetoceros compressus)、閃光原甲藻(Prorocentrum micans)及丹麥細柱藻(Leptocylindrus danicus),合佔總豐度的43%。由四季之主成分分析法分析結果發現,今年四季各測站有一定程度的區隔,可見今年各季節之浮游植物種類組成及數量略有不同。不同季節之浮游植物豐度、種類數目及種歧異度指數在各測站及不同水層間的變化趨向不甚一致,不過近岸及表層測站一般呈現較高的趨向。以整年度調查結果來看,核一及核二廠出水口測站之浮游植物豐度多高於年平均值,且種類數亦經常高於年平均值,所發現的種類數目分別佔總種類數目的40%及38%,顯示核電廠之溫排水對附近海域浮游植物種類之多樣性並無明顯的影響。 第四章 浮游動物 為了解核電廠長期運轉過程中大量海水的吸取與冷卻水的釋放對附近海域中的浮游動物產生什麼影響,以及了解海中浮游動物之分佈、含量之變化情形。本調查於 99 年 7 月 11 日與 99 年 11 月 21 日於核電廠外海域進行 2010 年度第 3、4 季的採樣分析。綜合本年度第 3、4 季的採樣結果,核一廠外海域共發現 21 大類之浮游動物,兩季的平均個體量以哲水蚤的 525.56 inds./ m3 最多 (86.29 %),其次為夜光蟲 72.33 inds./ m3 (11.88 %),第三則是毛顎類 2.52 inds./ m3 (0.41 %)。核二廠外共發現 23 大類之浮游動物,兩季平均的季平均個體量以哲水蚤的 3500.24 inds./ m3 最多 (76.99 %),其次為夜光蟲 423.28 inds./ m3 (9.31 %),第三則是瑩蝦 401.14 inds./ m3 (8.82 %)。磺溪測線共發現 16 大類之浮游動物,兩季的平均個體量以哲水蚤的 2656.20 inds./ m3 最多 (96.58 %),其次為夜光蟲 66.05 inds./ m3 (2.40 %),第三則是瑩蝦 7.34 inds./ m3 (0.27 %)。綜觀全年度的調查研究顯示,核電廠附近海域之浮游動物數量與大類數相較過去的歷史結果沒有顯著的變化。 第五章 底棲動物 從89年第4季到99年第4季的調查中發現,在核一廠外海的沉積環境中,物種之豐度、密度及總量均以95年之第1季之值為最低,其原因已在以往報告中解釋過,故不在此重複敘述。核一廠在進出水口與季節變化中無任何交互作用存在,可能係因季節的變化對物種與沉積環境的影響,較進出水口的變化來得大很多,所以無交互作用發生。主要當沈積物中總有機質含量較低,平均粒徑較粗且分佈較不平均的環境中,較大型的底棲動物便會在此居住;沈積物特性之變化(可能在季節上之變動),而非有機質含量為決定物種分佈及聚集的主要因子。核一廠外海的沉積環境及底棲動物之群聚,均無任何長期性的變化出現。 就核二廠來說,在進水口處之生物及非生物環境因子均比出水口來的高,可能因底質的細泥含量高,平均粒徑較粗,分佈較不均勻及總有機質含量較高,使進水口的環境歧異度增加,食物較豐富,造成較多的底棲物種在此聚集。核二廠外海的沈積環境,主要受到細泥含量及篩選度所影響。而細泥含量變化所產生的影響力,也會反應在物種之豐度和密度的變化中。而該廠的總有機質和細泥含量,從93年第1季起有逐月減少的趨勢。這些變化仍有待進一步的了解。 在核一廠與核二廠的綜合討論來看,核一及核二廠除物種總量外,各因子之電廠和季節的交互作用均主要受到季節變化所影響,物種之豐度、密度、沉積物之篩選度及細泥含量在季節與進、出水口之交互作用亦主要受到季節變化所影響。這代表由於核一、二廠間之差異不大,所以季節及不同位置之影響就會變的顯著。 龍門廠的外海中,僅物種豐度及密度在季節上有明顯的變化。季節亦是豐度及密度變化之主要影響因素。龍門廠的底棲物種多樣性(即物種密度及豐度)從89年第4季來,有逐年增加的趨勢,其原因尚不太了解。 由本研究的結果得知,核一廠外海的底棲生態群聚,從89年第4季到99年第4季間,無長期性的變化出現。核二廠的總有機質和細泥含量,從93年第1季起有逐月減少的趨勢。這些變化仍有待進一步的了解。龍門廠的底棲物種多樣性從89年第4季來,有逐年增加的趨勢,季節仍是豐度及密度變化之主要影響因素。 第六章 魚類 一、珊瑚礁(岩礁)與洄游及沙泥底棲魚類 本年度 99年1~12月於核一海域增加一條潛水對照測站於草里港,原來的實驗測站L1共調查到17科41種514尾魚,最優勢種為霓虹雀鯛,幼魚為主,而對照站共調查到17科50種1376尾魚,最優勢種為霓虹雀鯛。核二位於溫排水口右側的實驗測站(line3)共調查到23科57種2071尾,而位於明光碼頭旁的對照站(Ctrl)則共調查到25科69種1968尾。兩海域優勢種魚類組成不同,今年兩海域所調查到的魚種數都較去年為多,回升至往年水準。由ANOSIM one-way的方法比較核二廠兩測站間群聚組成並無顯著差異(R=0.07),且十年來的資料亦顯示出溫排水並不顯著影響近岸區的魚類群聚。核一廠兩測站間群聚組成也無顯著差異(R=0.19),但核一海域自93年後魚類群聚已開始緩慢改變,今年群聚與96年最相似。 核四海域在99年度鹽寮站共26科81種,新澳底站有27科72種魚種。由長期的資料顯示黃帶天竺鯛、長鰭鸚鯛、竹葉鯛與杜氏刺尾鯛分別有年間消長的現象。ANOSIM的分析則顯示出施工前後核四海域的珊瑚礁魚類群聚並無顯著差異。而92年在核四海域及去年在核二海域大量出現的褐籃子魚幼魚,今年在此海域無大爆發的情形。。去年各測站所調查到的魚種數與尾數都較往年為少,今年各測站都已回升。 在沙泥底棲及洄游性魚類方面,利用刺網在核一廠海域共捕獲18科30種90尾,核二廠則有18科22種56尾。核一廠與核二廠海域的魚種數及魚尾數以Paired T test分析各電廠的內、外測站是否具顯著差異,核一廠海域的魚種數與尾數皆無顯著差異。核二廠的魚種數及魚尾數亦皆無顯著差異,因此溫排水可能並不顯著影響核二電廠海域的沙泥底棲及洄游性魚類。核四海域的沙泥底棲與洄游性魚類方面,魚種組成大多以礁區魚類為主要成員,今年捕獲的魚種數與尾數都較往年為少,只與92年相當,產值也是近8年來最少的,與92年類似,此現象與核四施工並無關連。 二、撞擊魚類 99年1-11月之間共採集11次,共計採獲39科68種3,477尾,總重量為309.4公斤。採獲魚類仍以非經濟性中表層及底棲魚類為主要類群。其中核一廠為30科48種1,911尾,共113.1公斤重,核二廠為32科47種1,566尾,196.3公斤重。其中,核一廠採獲種數和尾數皆大於核二廠,記錄科數及總重則小於核二廠。 99年撞擊調查新增加的種類共計6種,包含黑腕海豬魚(Halichoeres melanochir)、西氏擬隆頭魚(Pseudolabrus sieboldi)、黃衣錦魚(Thalassoma lutescens)、大眼海鰱(Megalops cyprinoides) 、鱗鰭叫姑魚(Johnius distinctus)及細斑刺鼻單棘魨 (Cantherhines pardalis)。優勢種依序為六斑二齒魨(Diodon holocanthus) (共計1,882尾)、鯡科的黑尾小沙丁(Sardinella melanura)(共計612尾)及(Sardinella spp.) (共計330尾)。 由過去調查結果顯示:核一、核二廠在種數與歧異度指數的變化上略呈一致,即呈冬季指數較低而秋季月份偏高之變化趨勢。聚類分析結果顯示,核一廠及核二廠無明顯分群現象;魚類群聚在不同季節之群聚組成可分為冬、春季與夏、秋季兩大類群,應受海水溫度影響。92及93年、94和95年則歸為一群,而群聚結構之年間變化可能受到優勢種影響。另外,今年尚未有大量撞擊之記錄。由歷年來採樣所累積之魚類種數累計圖顯示,新增加紀錄的種類速度已經漸漸趨緩,目前共累積達約379種。過去本計畫已經利用核電廠進水口之撞擊採樣來瞭解附近海域的魚類相組成,結果證明是相當有效率的調查方法,值得持續進行監控與調查,以便累積當地海域如豐度、種類數及歧異度等生態背景資料。 三、畸形魚之生態調查 花身雞魚(Terapon jarbua)和大鱗鮻(Liza macrolepis)畸形魚自82年夏天在核二廠出水口被發現,由過去之研究結果已證實當水溫超過37℃時,魚苗會因體內維生素C受到破壞,而造成畸形,然而已畸形之魚如再放入常溫飼育,將會逐漸回復。因此每年夏天當出水口內水溫超過37℃後,便開始發現有畸形魚苗之出現,至十、十一月水溫降低,畸形之魚苗才漸減抑或不再出現。花身雞魚及大鱗鮻之畸形率有很大之年變化:花身雞魚之畸形率自84年開始逐年下降,於90年降至3.9%,有明顯減少的趨勢,然而在93年後畸形率又回升,除95年驟升至57.32%外,其餘年份之畸形率多維持在20%上下。99年度共捕獲花身雞魚201尾,畸形率為40.8%。大鱗鮻99年度共捕獲大鱗鮻213尾,畸形率為14.55%。 99年迄今於核二廠出水口水域各測站所捕獲之魚種僅花身雞魚、大鱗鮻、鯔(正烏魚)、虱目魚、亞洲沙鮻、布氏鯧鰺及黑星笛鯛7種,其中花身雞魚、大鱗鮻及鯔(正烏魚)是最有可能會發生畸形之魚種。由過去結果可以得知溫排水並不會對所有的魚種都造成影響,使之出現畸形,同樣於夏季期間出現於溫排水口水域之魚類,通常只有其中少數幾種有畸形之情況出現。然而由於無法阻止魚苗在夏季游入出水口內之高溫水域滯留,故排水口內之水域在溫水尚未排出擴散稀釋前,只要有可能會發生畸形之魚種的魚苗游入,則每年仍會有畸形魚之發生,因此對於溫排水水域內每年均大量來游的魚種,包括花身雞魚與大鱗鮻這兩種易形成畸形之魚種持續進行長期監測仍應有其之必要性。 第七章 放射性核種監測 本子計畫目的為監測台灣北部核能電廠(核一、核二及龍門電廠)附近海域沉積物及生物樣本中放射性核種種類、活度、時空分佈及變化。本報告涵蓋本二年期計畫即去(98)年及今(99)年全年 共八季之監測結果,並更新出水口海藻類及岸砂樣本監測人工核種(錳五十四及鈷六十)之時間序列,回顧歷年來結果。 本次報告所含各類樣本放射核種分析結果,計有魚類樣本28件,附著性藻類樣本35件,沉積物(海砂)樣本92件。綜合三地各類樣本中所測出核種平均總活度以強度排列依序為:岸沙(596貝克/公斤) > 海藻類 (122貝克/公斤鮮重) > 魚類(63貝克/公斤鮮重) > 海水(12貝克/公斤)。各地及各類樣本中絕大部份(>99%)之放射活度係由天然核種以不同比例組成;若測得人工核種,其活度皆遠低於各該核種於相關環境試樣之調查基準值。整體平均言之,岸沙樣品中鉀四十、釷二三二系列核種、鈾二三八系列核種及鈹七、分別佔總活度之52%, 24%, 20%及4%,。海藻類樣品中的各類核種活度組成為:鉀四十佔68%,鈹七佔7%,釷二三二系列佔14%,鈾二三八系列佔10%。魚類樣品中的核種活度有92%來自鉀四十,鈾二三八系列及釷二三二系列核種各佔約3-5%。海水中放射核種活度則是97%來自鉀四十,2%來自鈾二三八系列核種,1%來自銣八十七。` 至於人工核種,各類樣本中常可測得核爆落塵所造成的銫一三七;其在各類樣本中之平均活度依序為:岸沙(0.30貝克/公斤) > 海藻類(0.059貝克/公斤鮮重) >魚類(0.041貝克/公斤鮮重) > 海水(0.0024貝克/公斤),呈現沉積物清除及生物濃縮效應。此外,核一、二廠出水口採得之海藻及海砂樣本中,持續測得活度遠低於調查基準值之錳五十四及鈷六十。出水口以外及離岸試樣中則從未測得此二人工核種。
Abstract:Chapter 1 Coastal Tidal Currents There are three purposes for surveying the coastal currents. First is to provide the local current information while collaborating with the bio-chemical surveys. Second is to observe the coastal currents near the thermal plume outlets of the nuclear power plants at northern Taiwan. Third is to study the structure of the near shore and far shore currents around and their variations. Surveys in four seasons for the first two purposes have been successfully performed by employing the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and the surface T-S of the RV/OR2 to scan along the bio-chemical cruise lines. Various plots are prepared for subprograms of this project to easily refer to. For the third purpose, the data of repeated ADP scans are re-formed by the “synoptic data processing” to achieve the time series of the current vectors in grids as a movie. The regular tidal patterns of the far shore currents are present as well as the individuality of the near shore currents at the NPP1, NPP2 and NPP4 due to the geographic difference of their coasts. The far shore flood currents are northwestward while the ebb currents southeastward. In statistics, the NW flows dominate in fall and winter but the SW flows for spring and summer, the typical phenomenon of the alternation with waters of Kuroshio, East China Sea and Taiwan Strait in monsoons. Chapter 2 Water Quality And Hydrography This study is one of the sub-projects which concern the ecological impact by the effluents of the cooling water discharged from the Taiwan Nuclear Power Works I and II. This study focuses on the investigation of the water quality of inshore seawater adjacent the Taiwan Nuclear Power Works I and II. The survey periods started from January 2009 to December 2010 and sampled once per season. The survey results for water quality adjacent the Taiwan Nuclear Power Work I were in the range: temperature, 17.23-28.64 ℃; dissolved oxygen, 6.04-9.62 mg/l ; pH, 7.76-8.23; phosphate, 0.001-0.024 mg/l; nitrite, 0.001-0.023 mg/l ;nitrate, 0.003-0.247 mg/l ; silicate, 0.060-0.593 mg/l and chlorophyll a, 0.09-1.31 μg/l. The data of pH and dissolved oxygen in the study area completely follow the “A level” seawater standard of EPA regulation. The principal component analysis was employed to examine the relationship between the water quality and the ecological system. It is found that the ecology of phytoplankton and zooplankton was related to the temperature and nutrients in seawater adjacent the Nuclear Power Works II. However, such a phenomenon was not observed in seawater adjacent the Nuclear Power Works I. Sediment samples were collected from the in and out entry of cooling water of the Taiwan Nuclear Power Works I and II and were analyzed trace metals. Total concentrations of trace metals in the sediment samples were: Cd, 0.04-0.14 mg/kg; Co, 7.32-19.53 mg/kg; Cr, 26.95-53.90 mg/kg; Cu, 9.75-28.62 mg/kg; Mn, 165-284 mg/kg; Ni, 14.74-21.70 mg/kg; Pb, 26.27-63.14 mg/kg; Fe, 0.81-1.83 %; and Zn, 28.70-50.66 mg/kg。Total concentrations of trace metals in the study area were one-two order of magnitudes lower than the soil standard of EPA regulation. In addition, the values of trace metals were also lower than those of the effects range-low value of incidence of adverse biological effects (Long et al., 1995). Chapter 3 Phytoplankton Two hundred and eight phytoplankton samples were collected in the coastal waters off the first and second nuclear power plants (NPP1, NPP2) in 2009. In all, 160 species of phytoplankton were recognized, with the mean abundance of 3.22 ± 0.24×103 cells/L which was about 1.5 times of the last year. The species diversity and abundance of phytoplankton showed apparent seasonal change, higher in July and lower in April. Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudonitzschia delicatissima, Chaetoceros compressus, Prorocentrum micans and Leptocylindrus danicus were the five predominant species, and together comprised 43% of the total phytoplankton number. Result of principal component analysis showed that the phytoplankton assemblage had apparent difference among seasons. The abundance, species number and diversity of phytoplankton exhibited different distribution patterns in different seasons, but generally higher abundance in inshore and surface waters. In this year, the outlet stations of NPP1 and NPP2 showed higher abundance and species number than the annual mean, and occupied 40% and 38% of the total species number of the whole year found, respectively, implied that the biodiversity of phytoplankton in the study areas was not influenced by the thermal drainage of the nuclear power plants. Chapter 4 Zooplankton In order to investigate the distribution of zooplankton, its quantity, and species composition in the waters adjacent to inlet and outlet of the nuclear power plants I and II, zooplankton was collected in the cruises of July 11 and November 21, 2010. The sampling stations located in the transect lines of inlet and outlet of the nuclear power plants I, II, and background site of near shore and offshore of Hwang’s River. Totally, 21 groups of zooplankton taxa were observed in the sampling waters of nuclear power plant I. Among them, Calanoida copepods (525.56 ind./m3, 86.29 %) had the most abundance in July and November. The second and third largest groups of zooplankton were Noctiluca (72.33 ind./m3, 11.88 %) and Chaetognatha (2.52 ind./m3, 0.41 %). Totally 23 groups of zooplankton taxa in the July and November cruises were recorded in the coastal water of nuclear power plant II. Similar with nuclear power plant I, Calanoida copepods (3500.24 ind./m3, 76.99 %) were the most abundant in July and November. The second and third largest groups of zooplankton were Noctiluca (423.28 ind./m3, 9.31 %) and Lucifera (401.14 ind./m3, 8.82 %). In the background site of the coastal water of Hwang River, totally 16 groups of zooplankton taxa were observed in July and November cruises. The Calanoid copepods (2656.20 ind./m3, 96.58 %) should the highest abundance in July and November. The second and third largest groups of zooplankton were Noctiluca (66.05 ind./m3, 2.40 %) and Lucifera (17.84 ind./m3, 0.27 %). The pattern of change in abundance and species compositions of zooplankton seemed to be driven by seasonal variability, indicating species succession. The result was similar to the previous patterns recorded in the past surveys those records in past years. Chapter 5 Macrobenthos The surveys from the winter of 2000 till 2010 found that, for the Nuclear Power Plant #1, the richness, density and biomass of macrobenthos were lowest in the spring of 2006.The possible reason have been described previously. There was no interaction between season and sites in the sediment of this power plant. It is possible that the influence of season on both biological and non-biological parameters was much larger than the site factors that no interaction existed among the analyses. Furthermore, where the particles were coarser, the distribution became less homogeneity and contained a lower total organic content, more larger macrobenthos were found inhabit there. That is, the change in the sediment characters (possible on the seasonal basis), not the organic content, were the major determine factors for the distribution and assemblage of the macrobenthos There was no long-term changes in both the biological and non-biological parameters in the sediment off the Nuclear Power Plant #1. For the Nuclear Power Plant #2, both the biological & non-biological parameters were higher in the inlet sediment than the outlet sites. This means that, the inlet sites contained more silt-clays, has a coarser particle size and less homogeneity in size distribution. In addition, inlet sites also contained a higher total organic content. The habitat diversity thus was higher than the outlet sites and provides more food source. This will attract more macrobenthos to inhabit at there. The benthic environment outside the nuclear power plant #2 was in flounced mainly by the sediment sorting & silt-clay content. The change in the silt-clay content also reflected in the variation of species richness & density. There was a decreasing trend in the total organic and silt-clay contents from the spring of 2004. Because there is no relationship between biological and abiological factors during this period, the relationship warrant further investigation. The synoptic discussion of Nuclear Power Plants No. 1 and 2 showed that, except the biomass, all the interactions were influenced mainly by the season. On the other hand, species richness, density, sediment sorting and silt-clay content was also influenced mainly by the season. The non-significant differences between two power plants might resulted in the significant influences of the both season and site factors For the Lon-men Nuclear Power Plant, only the species richness and density showed significant seasonal differences. Thus, season is still the dominant factor that influences the richness and density of benthic community. There existed increasing trends in both species richness and density. The reason is unclear. Based on this study, it is found that from the winter 2000 till 2010, no systematic change in the benthic community and sediment environment were found outside the Nuclear Power Plant No.1. There existed decreasing trends in both total organic content and silt-clay contents outside the Nuclear Power Plant No.2 since the spring of 2004. The benthic biodiversity outside the Lon-men Nuclear Power Plant showed an increasing trend in benthic biodiversity since the winter of 2000. Season is the major factor that influences the benthic richness and density of the benthic community. Chapter 6 Fish Coral Reef (Rock), Pelagic and Demersal fishes in the sandy muddy bottom At (NPPI) From January to December 2010, 41 species of 17 families with a total of 514 individuals of reef fishes were observed by scuba diving along station L1. The dominant species is Pomacentrus coelestis mostly were juvenile fishes at the NPPI. At one increased control station, 50 species of 17 families with 1,376 individuals were recorded. The most dominant species is the same as L1 at NPPI. A total of 57 species of 23 families with a total of 2,071 individuals were observed along station line 3 on the right side of thermal plume of NPPII. 69 species of 25 families with a total of 1,968 individuals were observed at the control station of waste port. The dominant species of NPPI and NPPII are different. The total species numbers observed was higher in this year than that in the last year, and was back to the level of previous years. Further analysis of ANOSIM reveals that fish assemblages between the two stations of NPPII have no significant difference (R=0.07). Further analysis of ANOSIM reveals that fish assemblages between the two stations of NPPI have no significant difference (R=0.19). But fish communities in the NPPI shows a slightly change since 2004. The fish assemblage in this year is most similarity with 2007. A total of 81 species of 26 families of reef fishes were observed underwater at Yen-liao and 72 species of 27 families of fishes at new station Ao-ti during the two surveys from January 2007 to December 2007. The long-term data show that Apogon properupta, Pteragogus flagellifera,Pseudolabrus japonicas and Acanthurus dussumieri were fluctuated alternatively. The ANOSIM results reveal fish assemblages of coral reef fishes have no change before and after the construction. Outbreak of young Siganus fuscescens found offshore in June 1993 and at NPPII last year has been observed at NPPIV so far. The total species number recalled at NPPIV last year which was less than that of previous years, but now all the stations in this year have been returned to normal. For the demersal and pelagic fish in the sandy muddy bottom, 30 species of 18 families including 90 individuals were caught around NPPI, 22species of 18 families including 56 individuals were caught around NPPII. As to the NPPI and NPPII, the number of species and individuals collected were fluctuated but ANOVA Paired T test has no difference between inside and outside stations. Therefore the effect of thermal plume is not significant for determining the demersal and pelagic assemblage of fish in the sandy muddy bottom. Most fishes at NPPIV still belong to coral reef species. The total species and individuals collected this year is less than in previous years, and equivalent to that oh 2003. Total productive values was also the last among record 8years, similar with 2003 But this phenomenon was not correlated with the construction of NPPIV. Impingement fish specimens were collected from the two nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan. There were totally 3,477 individuals with total weight of 309.4 kg were collected including 68 species belonging to 39 families during 11 times monthly samplings in 2010. Among them, 48 species in 30 families including 1,911 individuals and 113.1 kg were collected from the NPPⅠ, and 47 species in 32 families including 1,566 individuals and 196.3 kg were collected from the NPPⅡ, respectively. In addition, the number of species and individual from NPP I were larger than NPP II, but the number of family and total weight is lower. Six species were newly recorded in 2010 during the investigation. They were Halichoeres melanochir, Pseudolabrus sieboldi, Thalassoma lutescens (Labridae), Johnius distinctus (Sciaenidae), Megalops cyprinoides (Megalopidae), and Cantherhines pardalis (Monacanthidae). Dominant species were Diodon holocanthus (n=1,882), Sardinella melanura (n=612) and Sardinella spp. (n=330). The trend for species number and diversity index recorded were similar between NPP Ⅰand NPPⅡ, both values were higher from summer to fall rather than were lower during winter to spring since the investigation started in 2000. Clustering result indicated that samples from the NPPⅠ could not be separated from the NPPⅡ, but the year 2003 clustered with 2004, and 2005 clustered with 2006 for similarity that were contributed by the dominant species in SIMPER analysis. Besides, MDS ordination plot of the fish species composition showed that there was seasonal separation between the winter-spring and summer-full samples. This result indicated that the fish species composition could be influenced by the sea water temperature and the dominant species of the year. Finally, Diodon holocanthus and Sardinella spp. were the dominate species of the year and the situation was similar to last year, but the cause and further investigation are needed. A number of deformed Terapon jarbua and Liza macrolepis were found every summer in the thermal effluent outlet of the TNPPII since 1993. It has been demonstrated that when water temperature of outlet area exceeded 37°C, the juvenile fishes of Terapon jarbua would become deformed because of malfunction of vitamin C. However, these deformed fish could recover when kept in normal water temperature for several months. The deformed juvenile fish were observed in the summer while the water temperature was higher than 37°C, and then the deformed fish would disappear when the water temperature become lower in October or November during our observations in the past 16 years. The percentages of deformed fish observed change significantly yearly from 1993 to 2010. The percentages of deformed Terapon jarbua decreased gradually from 1995 to 2003 with the lowest rate 3.9% in 2001, but then raised in 2004 and fluctuated every since with the average rate around 20% and highest 57.3% (2006). In 2010, we have sampled 201 specimens and 40.8% of them were deformed. The percentages of deformed Liza macrolepis were high in 2000 (21.1%) and 2001(29.6%) but remain low in the rest years. In 2010, we have sampled 213 specimens with 14.55% deformed. In addition to those 2 species mentioned, other 5 fish species were also found in the outlet water in 2010. According to the past studies, not all species would be deformed in the summer in the thermal effluent outlet of the TNPPII. There were only few species with record of deformity. The deformed fish occurred in summer was due to the high temperature water in the thermal effluent outlet of the TNPPII could not be quickly diluted. Therefore, we need to keep monitoring the deformed fishes in order to establish baseline data for further investigation. Chapter 7 Monitoring Radionuclide Activities The objective of this project is to monitor radioactivities in sediment and biota samples collected from the near-shore environments around the nuclear power plants (NPP) in northern Taiwan. Reported here are the results for the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010. Average total activities in various types of samples collected during this 18-month period are: beach sand and sediments (596 Bq/kg) > algae (122 Bq/kg fresh) > fish (63 Bq/kg fresh) > seawater (12 Bq/kg). Most (>99%) of the radioactivity is attributable to naturally occurring radionuclides. If artificial nuclides are detected, their activities are much lower than relevant regulatory levels. In general, radioactivities in sand and sediment samples come primarily from 40K, 232Th-series nuclides, 238U-series nuclides and 7Be, constituting respectively 52%, 24%, 20% and 4% of the total activity. Radioactivities in fish samples are dominated by 40K (92%), with 238U-series and 232Th-series nuclides each contributing to approximately 3-5%. The percentage distribution of radioactivities in algae samples are on average: 40K, 68%; 7Be, 7%; 232Th-series nuclides, 14%; and 238U-series nuclides, 10%;. As for seawater samples, it can be reasonably calculated that 97% of the radioactivity comes from 40K, 2% from U-series nuclides and 1% from 87Rb. As regards anthropogenic radionuclides, 137Cs can be easily detected in most samples, and its activities in various types of samples are: shore sand (0.30 Bq/kg) > algae (0.059 Bq/kg fresh) > fish (0.047 Bq/kg fresh) > seawater (0.0024 Bq/kg). The effects of chemical scavenging by sediments and bio-concentration in biota samples can be seen. It should be noted that, low levels of 54Mn and 60Co activities, far below their investigation levels mandated by AEC, can be detected in algae and sediment samples collected from the outlets of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) I and II throughout this reporting period. However, these two artificial nuclides have never been detected in samples beyond the immediate vicinity of the outlets.
關聯: TPC-(073)-(98)-(07302)
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/33889
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