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Title: 階梯式道路收費系統之應用研究
Authors: 賴禎秀
Contributors: 國立臺灣海洋大學:商船學系
Keywords: 道路瓶頸;排隊等候;階梯式收費系統;最佳n階段收費方式;次佳n階段收費方式
Bottleneck;Queueing;Step toll system;Optimal n-step toll;uboptimal n-step toll
Date: 1996-08
Issue Date: 2013-05-31T03:04:32Z
Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
Abstract: 摘要:道路瓶頸之形成原因不外乎地形之限制(如隧道、橋樑等)及人為因素(如車道之被迫減少等)兩種。尤其是在早上之通勤時段中,因為絕大部份之通勤者希望到達工作場所之時間均大致相同,所以在瓶頸路段前排隊等候通過之通勤車隊延長數公里之現象並不罕見。本研究計畫即是針對以上之問題設計出一套易於實施之階梯式道路收費系統來分散通勤者之出發時間以紓緩道路瓶頸前排隊等候之車潮。本收費系統為單階段與多階段之階梯式收費架構,適用於無替代路徑之單一瓶頸路段。其系統特徵與交通改善之成效可歸納為:(1)最佳n階段(n為自然數)收費方式之n個收費金額將收費前每位通勤者之均衡通勤成本等分成(n+1)等分,收費時間長度為排隊擁擠時間長度之 ,並可消除收費前全體通勤者總排隊擁擠時間之;(2)次佳n階段收費方式雖無(1)之特性,但可彈性地消除收費前全體通勤者總排隊時間之 以上, 以下。由於以上之擁擠改善效果是計畫主持人在1994年發表於國際期刊上之論文主要結論,因此在台灣之都會區尋找一個適合此研究背景之路段作為專題研究計畫案將可評估本收費系統在台灣都會區實施之可行性。位於台中都會區之工業一路是西屯區通往台中工業區之唯一聯絡道路,頗符合本收費系統實施背景之通勤瓶頸路段。本研究計畫案不僅對工業一路收費站之位置選擇與規劃作了詳細之討論,同時也依據該地區在擁擠時間帶之車流數據以及通勤者之時間成本發展出一套適合於當地實施之階梯式收費系統。以上之結果將可作為政府相關單位日後考慮在瓶頸路段採行道路定價之參考依據。
Abstract:Because of topographic restraints, such as tunnels and bridges, or artificial restraints, such as lane-decreasing regulation, commuting roads have a narrow segment. A bottleneck is formed in these situations. Especially during the morning rush hours, because most commuters have almost the same preferred arrival time at work, there are often long and persistent queues at the bottleneck. In order to release queueing problem from the bottleneck, the author develops a step toll system to decentralize commuters' departure time from their homes. The step toll system includes single- and multi-step tolls. Characters and expected effects of the step toll system on queueing reduction can be concluded as: (1) The optimal n-step toll (with the identical charging length for each step) divides the maximum optimal time-varying toll (or the non-toll equilibrium commuting costs) into (n+1) equal amounts and eliminates up to n/(n+1) of total queueing time that exits under the non-toll equilibrium; (2) although the suboptimal n-step toll dose not follow the rule in (1), it can flexibly remove more than (n-1)/n and less than n/(n+1) of total queueing time that exits under the non-toll equilibrium. Because this is a brand new toll system developed by the author and published in the International Journal; applying this toll system in metropolitans shows the feasibility of this kind of road pricing in Taiwan urban area. Industry 1st Road to Taichung Industry Center in Taichung metropolitan is a bottleneck that matches up all backgrounds of the model of the step toll system. This proposal not only discusses the location choice and system planning about the toll booth on the Industry 1st Road, but also develops the complete step toll system, based on traffic flows during the queueing period and commuters' time costs, for the Industry 1st Road. These provide the relevant authorities a blue print if imposition of congestion charges for a road bottleneck is considered.
Relation: NSC86-2416-H035-001
Appears in Collections:[Department of Merchant Marine] Research Reports

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