|Abstract: ||摘要:在庶民大眾的識字歷程中，雜字書此種學習教材實居關鍵性地位；然 以往有關雜字書的研究，不論是教育界或歷史圈均未予以適當重視，致相 關瞭解頗為有限。為彌補此一空缺，本計畫即以明清時期的雜字書為研究 對象，欲從教育學習與出版印刷兩個層面，對雜字書的淵源、演變及特點 作初步探究。 大致而言，明清以來雜字書依其內容可分為教科書型雜字書與工具書 型雜字書兩大類，其中，教科書型雜字書又分集中識字用與鞏固識字用兩 種；工具書型雜字書亦分為兩種：即字（辭）典類雜字書與家庭生活手冊 類雜字書。由明清以來雜字書種類的多樣化可知此時雜字書的使用對象與 目的已有擴展，並非如以往認為的專供童蒙識字認詞用而已，亦可供成人 獲取生活知識以供日用參考。同時，由雜字書名稱、內容等訊息可知，明 清以來雜字書的使用地區不限鄉村，利用層級不限庶民，而是城鄉流通、 四民並用，與明清以前情況實不相同。 由於雜字書類型不一，研究時應予區隔，故筆者首先著手集中識字用 雜字書，釐清此種初學入門用雜字書實源自《急就篇》、《開蒙要訓》之 識字傳統，在內容上強調自日常生活中的各式具體名物著手，與傳統暢銷 識字書「三（字經）、百（家姓）、千（字文）」之著重倫理道德訓誡與 前人功績懿行的典範學習頗為不同，然書籍內容多以韻語連文及以類相從 方式呈現則與《急就篇》、「三、百、千」等識字教材一致。又雜字書的 產生多賴市井文人的努力，此輩或因科舉、仕途不順而投身基礎教育工作 ，或經營書局從事文化事業，扮演知識傳播與文化承繼的中介者角色，其 成就實為後人佩服並稱道。|
abstract:For the average people, Tsa-tzu book plays a vital role in the process of learning words. The past study on this kind of teaching material, however, has been, to a certain degree, ignored both in the academic circles of education and history. So this kind of study is insufficient. For this reason, this study used Tsa-tzu books of Ming-Ching dynasties as a research target. I intend to make an initial study on Tsa-tzu books' origin, evolution and characteristics in terms of education/learning and publishing/printing. Generally speaking, Tsa-tzu books since Ming-Ching dynasties can be divided into two kinds---textbooks and tool books. And the former can be further divided into the books for concentration study and the books for strengthened learning. The latter can also be further divided into a kind of dictionary and a kind of handbook for family life. Judging from their variety, we can learn that users and functions of Tsa-tzu books since Ming-Ching dynasties have been expanded. That is, in addition to being books for children to learn words, they can serve as a handbook for adults to learn common sense in daily life. Meanwhile, according to their title, contents, and other kinds of information, Tsa-tzu books since Ming-Ching dynasties have been beyond the boundary of countries; and their users were not confined to average people. Making a significant contrast to those days before Ming-Ching dynasties, they have been expanded to urban areas and used by all levels of society. In order to draw a distinction and because of their variety, I start my research with Tsa-tzu books for concentration study. Derived from the literacy tradition of Chin-chiu-pien and Kai-meng-yao-hsun, this kind of introductory books stresses learning concrete nouns of objects in daily life, while traditional best-selling word learning books such as San-tzu-chiang, Pai- chia-hsing, and Chien-tzu-wen emphasize ethical teaching and predecessors' good deeds. However, these two types are similar in their use of rhyme and analogy. In addition, the production of Tsa-tzu books mainly depends on the efforts of literary men on bottom society. Some of these people would be devoted to basic education for their frustration in the civil service exam or officialdom . Others would run bookstore to engage in cultural industry, playing a role of a mediator to disseminate knowledge and cultural inheritance. Their achievements are really admirable and praiseworthy for later generation.