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Title: 海上貨物運送人責任國際公約立法模式之分析
An Analysis of Legislative Approach to Liabilities of Marine Cargo Carriers under International Conventions
Authors: Fang K.H.;Liu T.C.;Chung Cheng-Chi
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Shipping and Transportation Management
Keywords: 國際公約;海牙規則;鹿特丹規則;海上貨物運送人責任
International Conventions;The Hague Rules;The Rotterdam Rules;Liabilities of marine cargo carriers
Date: 2011-06
Issue Date: 2012-06-18T05:52:17Z
Publisher: Maritime Quarterly
Abstract: 摘要:自美國1893年哈特法案以降,至1924年海牙規則、1968年海牙威斯比規則、1978年漢堡規則,以迄2009年鹿特丹規則之百年歷程中,託運人與運送人間之勢力持續對抗。就海上貨物運送發展趨勢,以託運人利益抑或以運送人利益優先之立法模式,對全球海運市場具有舉足輕重之影響。本文藉由歷史法學研究方法,分析國際公約統一法之變革,探討海上貨物運送人責任之演進。本文研究發現,受契約自由原則之影響,海上貨物運送人責任從絕對責任逐步緩和至相對責任。顯然地,為了追求國家利益與海運市場效率,折衝於各國際公約之責任混合立法已為趨勢。海上貨物運送人責任立法模式,並非單向式亦非直線式發展,乃託運人與運送人間之變動,搖擺振幅似有逐漸縮小之趨勢。
Abstract:The force of shippers and carriers were in the competition for hundreds of years, since the Harter Act in 1893, the Hague Rules in 1924, the Hague-Visby Rules in 1968, the Hamburg Rules in 1978, and the Rotterdam Rules in 2009. To the trend of marine cargo transportation development, the legislative approach of the priority of shipper's or carrier's benefit has played a decisive role in global shipping markets. This article is analyzed by the process of legislation explained to the unification of international conventions and the background of liabilities of marine cargo carriers. It is shown that under the impact of doctrine of contract freedom, the carrier's absolute liabilities have been turned into relative liabilities gradually. Obviously, the mixing legislative approach among the international conventions is the main way to fit for the benefit of countries and efficiency of shipping markets. We believe that the legislative approach to liabilities of marine cargo carriers is neither one-way nor straight-way process. It swings like a pendulum under the influence of shippers and carriers, and the amplitude seems to be less and less.
Relation: 20(2), pp.21-44
Appears in Collections:[Department of Shipping and Transportation Management] Periodical Articles

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