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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/30866

Title: 貨櫃航商選擇碼頭營運商問題之探討
Exploring the Selection of Terminal Operators for Container Liner
Authors: Lin, Li-Mei
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Harbor and River Engineering
Keywords: 港口;粒子群最佳化演算法;碼頭營運商
port;particle swarm optimization;terminal operator
Date: 2012
Issue Date: 2012-04-13T07:45:48Z
Abstract: 航商在選擇港口時,通常會作兩階段決策分析,第一階段航商會先選定港口,然後再選定碼頭營運商。而選擇港口考量的因素眾多,而各港口的條件不一,在某些因素上表現很好,有些因素則相對較差,航商在綜合考量因素後所選定的港口,在各因素的表現上不會均是名列前茅,但一定是在其可容忍的條件下。同時,航商為維持一定週期的服務,每條航線的靠泊港均設定一個最大的靠泊時間,在每個港口給定的靠泊時間下,各港口間在各因素的比較下,若有些微差距,只要不超過允許的靠泊時間,這些因素就變成一個門檻值,而非選擇港口的絕對值了。據此,在區域內符合航商最低門檻的港口,航商所選擇的合作對象已非過去文獻中以探討港口為對象,而是碼頭營運商。本研究即探討當所有候選港口達到航商的最低門檻下,如何在一個給定的區域或國家的港口中選擇碼頭營運商。 本研究以數學規劃方式及 Eberhart and Kennedy所提出之粒子群最佳化(PSO)演算法,求解貨櫃碼頭營運商與貨櫃數量分配之問題。為建立總成本最小的目標式,將貨物內陸運輸成本及貨損所造成的費用納入目標式,以作為最小總成本的計算;裝卸效率、外港等待時間納入限制式,做為評估各碼頭營運商之標準是否達到最低門檻值。透過本研究所設計的模式可為貨櫃航商找到其重櫃、空櫃及轉口櫃的碼頭作業的最佳合作夥伴,從模擬的結果可知,該航商應在該區域內同等性質的碼頭營運商中,分別選擇一個作為轉口貨櫃的基地,另選擇一個作為進出當地貨源的基地。
The selection ports by carriers generally have a two stage decision making process: first they select the port for a given shipment, then they select a terminal operator at the chosen port. This process involves consideration of a multiplicity of factors, including port performance across a range of indicators. In this paper, we suggest that ports are selected not necessarily on the basis of being the best in any set of indicators; rather they must have acceptable levels of performance on all indicators. These acceptable limits form a threshold in port selection, not a single decisive criterion. For example, carriers may select any port which offers dwelling time within acceptable limits. Past literature has mostly discussed port selection. However, within a given region, any port which meets a carrier's threshold conditions is eligible for consideration, and a terminal operator at any of these ports is a candidate for entering into a contract with the carrier. The choice is not restricted to terminal operators at a single given port. Thus the choice of terminal operator is an important step in the decision-making process. Selection of terminal operator has rarely been addressed in the literature, but this paper examines a situation in which all ports in a country or region meet the minimum criteria set by carriers, and how carriers then select terminal operators. This paper formulates the terminal operator selection problem using the MIP model and applies the PSO algorithm to solve the optimal solution. The mathematical model incorporates inland shipping costs and cargo losses into total costs in the objective function. Loading / unloading efficiency and pre-entry waiting time are included in the constraints to determine whether the operator meets the threshold minimum standards. Through the designed model of this paper, the best partnership for container carriers could be identified in the allocation of full, empty and transshipment containers in terminal operations. The simulated results also exposes that the container carrier should select one for transshipment base and another for import/export base among the homogenous terminal operators in the area.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0D98520001
Appears in Collections:[河海工程學系] 博碩士論文

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