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Combination of Marginal Cost Pricing and Equilibrium Cost Pricing Models to a Busy Port Container Yard
|Contributors: ||NTOU:Department of Merchant Marine|
congestion;queuing;marginal cost;equilibrium cost;container yard
|Issue Date: ||2012-04-13T01:47:41Z
|Abstract: ||摘要:繁忙的公共設施常會形成尖峰流量擁擠以及瓶頸排隊等候的現象。欲改善前者之 現象，運輸經濟學者一般會建議以邊際成本定價法則來降低因使用量過大所造成 的流量擁擠。對設施使用者徵收合理的擁擠收費，將能填補其使用時所產生之邊 際社會成本。欲改善後者之現象，則會建議以均衡成本定價法則來縮短因設施容 量限制所造成的排隊等候時間。對設施使用者徵收合理的等候收費來取代（消除） 等量的排隊等候時間成本，將仍維持其收費前的均衡成本。 目前為止尚無任何文獻將上述兩種定價模式整合在同一個公共設施中。有鑑於 此，本研究計畫將以繁忙的港埠貨櫃儲區為背景，當儲區內的貨櫃流量擁擠現象 發生時，港務局欲讓儲區有效使用之方法為對每一使用者（貨櫃託運人）收取最 佳擁擠費，如此可使過大的貨櫃流量降至最佳狀態。另一方面，當儲區外貨櫃排 隊等候進場的現象發生時，則需先計算託運人因排隊等候所形成的均衡成本，再 依據均衡成本守恆的原則推導出最佳等候收費架構。等候收費實施後將有效分散 託運人的到達時刻，縮短託運人的出口貨櫃在櫃場管制站外的排隊等候時間。整 合以上兩種定價模式可使儲區內之貨櫃儲放與流通更有效率，提升港埠競爭力。|
Abstract:Problems of peak-load flow congestion and bottleneck queuing are often happened at a busy public facility. To the former problem, marginal cost pricing policy is suggested by the transport economist to relieve the flow congestion due to heavy usage of the facility. Congestion tolls levied to the facility user will compensate the marginal social cost that the same user made during the congestion period. To the latter problem, equilibrium cost pricing policy is suggested to decrease the queuing time due to the limited capacity of the facility. Queuing tolls levied to the facility user will totally replace (eliminate) the same amount of queuing time costs to the same user during the queuing period. Finally, equilibrium cost in the tolled case is the same as before in the non-toll case. So far, there is no literature regarding to combine the marginal cost pricing policy with the equilibrium cost pricing policy at a public facility. This research is going to make such a combination at a busy port container yard. When the flow congestion occurs at the container yard, the optimal congestion toll will be charged to each container yard user to reduce the heavy container flow to an optimum condition. On the other hand, when the container queuing occurs at the entry to the container yard, the equilibrium cost due to queuing has to be derived first. Then the optimal queuing toll scheme can be developed according to the permanent equilibrium cost principle. This toll scheme will effectively decentralize all containers’ arrival times at the container yard. Then the total queuing time at the entry to the container yard will be decreased. Combination of the above two pricing policies makes the movement of container in the container yard more efficiency, and consequently the port become more competitive.
|Appears in Collections:||[商船學系] 研究計畫|
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