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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/30377

Title: 以操船模擬機為測試平台之多種導航法應用分析
On the application and analysis of different guidance methods by using a shiphandling simulator as the test platform
Authors: Cheng- Yu Chang
張正鈺
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Communications Navigation and Control Engineering
國立臺灣海洋大學:通訊與導航工程學系
Keywords: 操船模擬機;影像處理;疊標導航;模糊控制;內模式控制
Shiphanding Simulator;Image Processing;Leading Line Guidance;Fuzzy Controller;Internal Model Controller
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2011-11-25T07:43:38Z
Abstract: 本研究以海洋大學操船模擬機為測試平台,整合Labview環境及軟硬體架構,探討以影像處理為基礎技術之上下疊標及左右疊標導航法以及使用GPS資料之視線導航法(Line of Sight Guidance)共三種導航法,達到自動導引船舶至預定航道內。影像處理之導航法包含利用上下疊標導航法及左右疊標導航法這兩種影像導航方式,其乃是利用架設於操船模擬機內之CCD攝影機,結合影像處理技術之色彩空間轉換及型態學閉合,門檻值設定及中值濾波方法鎖定兩疊標,並計算兩疊標中心點跟本船CCD中心點之角度關係送至控制器產生舵角輸出,導引船舶至預定航道內。而視線導航法則是結合GPS準確定位資訊並計算出航向角修正量,並經由船舶航向自航控制器來執行航向變換控制,將船舶導引至預定航行區域上。總結,本文應用三種導航法結合內模式控制器及模糊控制器二種控制器,於海洋大學真時操船模擬機進行測試,本研究利用模擬機容易調整環境干擾及天候等參數之便利性,對實驗船舶加入風、流之環境干擾條件,探討三種導航法及所結合之控制器,對於自動導引船舶至預定航行區域之影響,另亦進行控制效能及能源耗損之比較。實驗結果顯示,上下疊標導航法結合模糊控制器收斂行為優於結合內模式控制,左右疊標導航法則呈現不理想之單點導航效果。而利用GPS定位資訊之視線導航法於不同干擾強度下,其效果取決於虛擬導航點之設定,因而亦不甚可靠。
This work uses the National Taiwan Ocean University(NTOU) Shiphandling Simulator (SHS) as the testbed to examine the performance of three types of guidance schemes that guide a ship towards a prescribed straight water channel. Specifically, the first two types of guidance methods are based on image processing technique; namely, the fore-aft leading mark and the left-right leading mark guidance methods, and the third one is a GPS-based Line-of-Sight (LOS) guidance method. The Labview working environment is adopted for the design of the Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and the Internal Model Controller (IMC) adopted in this study. An image processing unit placing inside of bridge of the SHS is used to acquire images of leading marks projected onto the screen. The images of the leading marks are acquired through a sequence of image processing steps: color space transformation, threshold value screening, median filtering and closing operations, then the centers of the leading marks are identified. Finally, the angle between the leading marks and the distance from the leading marks to the center of the CCD camera are fed into controllers to steer the ship towards a prescribed channel. The LOS guidance method uses precise GPS positioning information to compute a reference heading angle to steer the ship through a sequence of course-changing maneuvers. Simulations under the wind and current effects indicate that the fore-aft leading mark guidance method with FLC autopilot has better performance than with the IMC autopilot. The left-right leading mark guidance scheme is less satisfactory because of its single leading mark like performance, and the performance of the LOS guidance scheme under different disturbances depends greatly on the selection of a proper virtual waypoint makes it not reliable in practical use.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M98670014
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/30377
Appears in Collections:[通訊與導航工程學系] 博碩士論文

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