|Abstract: ||在西元1978年7月26日全世界第一個試管嬰兒路易斯.布朗（Louis Brown）在英國出生，在西元1985年4月16日台灣第一位試管嬰兒張小弟於台北榮總出生，這全世界第一位試管嬰兒現已三十三歲且以自然受孕方式生下一名嬰兒成功的為人母親，另一位台灣第一位試管嬰兒今年亦已二十六歲，現正攻讀醫管博士中，從這二位國外與國內第一試管嬰兒之成長過程來觀察，人工生殖子女與一般小孩應為無異，因此可以證明人工生殖至今應是成功。人工生殖技術發展成功，它帶給了不孕症夫妻一大希望與福音，同時亦宣告人類繁衍下一代，除了自然生育外，另有藉人工協助生殖的方法。然而人工生殖技術的發展，除了正面帶給不孕症夫妻一線希望，相對它也給帶來負面的影響，人工生殖所牽涉到之爭議包括法律、倫理、道德、婚姻、家庭多方面的問題。人工生殖技術現階段定位於它是一種對不孕症夫妻之醫療行為，故在使用於人工生殖技術治療不孕症的過程中，對於生殖細胞的來源不同，所產生的問題爭議就會有不同之結果，如再加上代理孕母之問題，其中問複雜性就顯為難以區分與定位，因此對於人工生殖之問題就有討論的必要性。本論文從人工生殖之定義到最後希望人工生殖子女能與一般子女一樣成長，不因為其出生是父母利用人工協助生殖方式而被標籤化，造成對其成長與人格發展產生影響。 本論文第一章在說明為何會以人工生殖子女之親子關係為研究之動機。第二章從人工生殖的意義、各種相關之人工生殖技術操作、人工生殖於法律上之分類為介紹。第三章傳統之親屬法因人工生殖發展導致有適用上的困難，因此為因應人工生殖技術而發展出新之婚生理論，重新定位人工生殖子女之法律上地位。故本章以傳統之婚生理論與因人工生殖所衍生之婚生理論做為介紹。第四章為第二章之延伸，以法律上分類為基礎，再輔以各學者的見解分析法律上如何定位各類型之人工生殖子女之法律上地位。因現行之人工生殖法所規定之合法人工生殖方式除配偶間之人工生殖外，另可允許接受以夫妻之一方擁有健康之生殖細胞與一方捐贈生殖細胞為人工生殖方式，其他方式之人工生殖就成為不合法之人工生殖子女，但在父母有心計劃下極有可能利用不合法之人工生殖方式，達成父母想擁有子女之願望，此類之人工生殖子女雖使用不合法方式出生，仍須給予一個法律上地位，才能符合聯合國兒童公約第七條第一項之規定，又基於子女之最佳利益不可以因為其生育方式不合法，就不給予合法之法律上地位。第五章人工生技術所衍生問題及建議，希望以個人對現行人工生殖法所見之問題與學者所見之問題做一研究，並對於人工生殖法未規定之問題與是否開放其他類型之人工生殖方式為討論，最後以大法官會議釋字五八七號解釋對人工生殖子女之權利為討論。第六章結論以建構健全之人工生殖制度，使人工生殖子女不被標籤化，可以與一般自然生育之子女一樣快樂成長。|
On July 26, 1978, Louis Brown, the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the world, was born in England; while on April 16, 1985, Chang, the first IVF Taiwan, was born in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. The world’s first IVF is now 33 years old, and became a mother after successfully giving birth to a baby naturally; while the first IVF of Taiwan is 26 years old, currently pursuing a doctoral degree in health care management. Under long-term observation on the two IVFs, their growth is no different from ordinary children, thus proving ectogensis technology to be successful, which is has brought hope and great news to infertile couples. Meanwhile, it means that human reproduction can be achieved through artificial insemination in additional to Assistant Reproductive Technology (ART). The development of ectogensis technology, however, not only brings positive outcome, but has some negative influences. Arguments of ectogensis are multicomponent, involving laws, morality, ethics, marriages and family issues. At present, ectogensis technology is taken as a medical act on infertile couples. Therefore, during the processes of treating infertility by ectogensis technology, different origins of germ cells lead to different results of the relevant problems and arguments. Taking the issue of surrogate mothers into account, the complexity of the problems and arguments will be too high to be discussed and defined. The problems of ectogensis thus need to be considered. The study firstly discusses the definition of ectogensis and finally wishes that children by ectogensis would grow up like ordinary children, not being labeled because their parents had relied on artificial insemination which negatively affects the children’s growth and personality development. In Chapter 1, the study demonstrates the reasons taking the parent-child relationship of children by ectogensis as research motivation. In Chapter 2, the meaning of ectogensis, various kinds of technology and operation relevant to ectogensis and different classifications of ectogensis in the law are introduced. In Chapter 3, the traditional Family Law appears to have application difficulty due to the development of ectogensis technology. A new legitimate theory dealing with ectogensis technology is then developed, which relocated the legal status of children by ectogensis. This chapter provides an introduction to the traditional legitimate theory and the new legitimate theory derived from ectogensis. Chapter 4 is the extension of Chapter 2. The discussion is based on the legal classifications and takes advice from different scholars in order to analyze how each type of the legal status of children by ectogensis is positioned in the law. The present Ectogensis Law stipulates that legal ectogensis only allows the ectogensis between the couple or the ectogensis with healthy germ cells from one spouse and donated germ cells from the other spouse. Otherwise children are considered to be the ones by illegal ectogensis. Nonetheless, with a careful plan, some parents are very likely to rely on illegal ectogensis to realize their dream of having children. Although the kind of birth is taken as illegal, the children by ectogensis should be given a legal status to fulfill the stipulation given in the first section of Article 7 in The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNICEF). In addition, on the basis of the best interests of children, being born through an illegal reproductive way does not mean s/he will not be given a legal status in the law. Chapter 5 discusses the problems derived from ectogensis technology, including some suggestions. The study focuses on the problems of The Ectogensis Law from the personal angle as well as those from scholars. Furthermore, discussions on the ectogensis problems which are not specified and will other kinds of ectogensis become legal are also provided. The last discussion is based on the rights of children by ectogensis regarding Interpretation number 587 of Grand Justices Council Adjudication. The conclusion in Chapter 6 aims to construct a complete system of ectogensis, which will stop children by ectogensis from labeled. They will be able to grow up happily as those who were born naturally.