Abstract:The phylogenetic relationships within the family Penaeidae are examined based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of 30 species from 20 genera. The analysis generally supports the three-tribe scheme proposed by
Burkenroad (1983) but it is not consistent with the five-group classification of Kubo (1949). Three clades are resolved: (Penaeus sensu stricto + Fenneropenaeus + Litopenaeus + Farfantepenaeus + Marsupenaeus + Melicertus + Funchalia + Heteropenaeus), (Metapenaeus + Parapenaeopsis + Xiphopenaeus + Rimapenaeus + Megokris + Trachysalambria) and (Metapenaeopsis + Penaeopsis + Parapenaeus), corresponding to the Penaeini, Trachypenaeini and Parapenaeini respectively, while the affinities of Atypopenaeus and Trachypenaeopsis are obscure. The molecular data support that Miyadiella represents the juvenile stage of Atypopenaeus. Within the Trachypenaeini, Trachypenaeus sensu lato is clearly paraphyletic, while the monophyly of Penaeus sensu lato in the Penaeini is questionable.