Abstract:One new genus and five new species of axiid burrowing shrimps are described from deep-waters around Taiwan: Formosaxius dorsum n. gen., n. sp.; Ambiaxius propinquus n. sp., Calastacus formosus n. sp.; Eiconaxius rubrirostris n. sp. and E. kensleyi n. sp. The new genus, Formosaxius, appears closest to Bouvieraxius Sakai & de Saint Laurent, 1989 in the arrangement and armature of the gastric carinae on the carapace and the possession of pleurobranchs, but the presence of appendices internae on the third to fifth pleopods readily separates the new genus from Bouvieraxius. Affinities of the other four new species are also discussed. This study raises the number of species of Axiidae known from Taiwan to 13.