Abstract:A new species of king crab is described from Taiwan, Lithodes formosae sp. nov. The new species resembles L. longispina Sakai, 1971, from Japan, L. megacantha Macpherson, 1991, from French Polynesia, and L. paulayi Macpherson & Chan, 2008, from Guam, in having long dorsal spines in adults, though it is most similar to L. paulayi.
Lithodes formosae is distinguished from the aforementioned species primarily by differing branchial spine arrangement and proportional spine length. Comparison of partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences from L. formosae sp. nov., L. paulayi and L. longispina supports the specific status of the new species. Six species of Lithodidae are known from Taiwan, of which L. formosae sp. nov. is the first to be described as new from Taiwan.