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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/29236

Title: Biodegradation of crystal violet by a Shewanella sp. NTOU1
Authors: Chih-Hung Chen;Chin-Feng Chang;Chuan-Hsin Ho;Tsai-Ling Tsai;Shiu-Mei Liu
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Marine Biology
Keywords: Anaerobic biodegradation;Triphenylmethane dye;N,N′-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone (Michler’s Ketone);N,N-dimethylaminophenol;Detoxification
Date: 2008-08
Issue Date: 2011-10-21T03:04:59Z
Publisher: Chemosphere
Abstract: Abstract:A bacterial isolate, strain NTOU1, originally isolated from the cooling system in an oil refinery could decolorize and detoxify crystal violet under anaerobic conditions. The strain was characterized and identified as a member of Shewanella decolorationis based on Gram staining, morphology characters, biochemical tests, the 16S rRNA gene and the gyrase subunit beta gene (gyrB). The optimum pH value and temperature for decolorization of crystal violet by this strain under anaerobic conditions were pH 8–9 and 30–40 °C, respectively. Formate (20 mM) was the best electron donor. Addition of ferric citrate did not inhibit decolorization of crystal violet, the addition of thiosulfate, ferric oxide, or manganese oxide slightly decreased decolorization, while addition of nitrite (20 mM) inhibited the decolorization of crystal violet. By supplementing the medium with formate and ferric citrate and cultivating it under optimum pH and temperature, this strain could remove crystal violet, at a concentration of 1500 mg l−1, at the rate of 298 mg l−1 h−1 (during decolorization the OD600 of the cell culture increased from ∼0.6 to ∼1.2). GC/MS analysis of the degradation products of crystal violet detected the presence of N,N′-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone (Michler’s Ketone), [N,N-dimethylaminophenyl] [N-methylaminophenyl] benzophenone, N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, N,N-dimethylaminophenol, and 4-methylaminophenol. These results suggest that crystal violet was biotransformed into N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler’s Ketone prior to further degradation of these intermediates. This paper proposes a probable pathway for the degradation of crystal violet by this Shewanella sp. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial tests showed that the process of decolorization also detoxify crystal violet.
Relation: 72(11), pp.1712–1720
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/29236
Appears in Collections:[海洋生物研究所] 期刊論文

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