Abstract:A few studies have evaluated demographic and genetic consequences of population subdivision by damming on the population as a whole. Formosa landlocked salmon Oncorhynchus masou formosanus have persisted as a relatively large population that has recently been subdivided into seven subpopulations by erosion-control dams and a natural waterfall. The present study simulated the demographic and genetic dynamics of this subdivided salmon population using VORTEX, an individual-based stochastic model. Although the population as a whole did not experience extinction over 200 simulation years, the loss of genetic variation was often detrimental (>10% loss). Isolated headwater subpopulations frequently reached extinction. Even when the subpopulations did persist through the 200 years, they experienced dramatic loss of genetic variation, suggesting short-term genetic threats. Due to the unidirectional dispersal of the fish, the damming puts headwater subpopulations at higher risk of extinction and loss of genetic variation, which affects persistence of the population as a whole, particularly from a genetic perspective.