Abstract:Orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides held at 27 °C were then further cultured at 19, 27 (control), and 35 °C, and were examined for innate cellular and humoral responses after 3–96 h. The total leucocyte count, respiratory burst, and phagocytic activity significantly decreased 3, 48, and 96 h after fish were transferred to 19 and 35 °C. Both the alternative complement pathway (ACH50) and the lysozyme activity significantly decreased at 3–96 h after fish were transferred to 19 and 35 °C. In another experiment, groupers reared at 27 °C at 34‰ salinity were injected with Vibrio alginolyticus grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) at a dose of 2.3 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu) fish−1, and then further reared in water temperatures of 19, 27 (control), and 35 °C. The cumulative mortalities of V. alginolyticus-injected fish held in 19 and 35 °C were significantly higher than that of injected fish held in 27 °C. Resistance had decreased after 12 h for the challenged grouper held at 35 °C. All injected fish held in 19 °C had died after 72 h. It was concluded that at 12 h after transfer of grouper from 27 to 19 and 35 °C, immunity was suppressed and resistance against V. alginolyticus had decreased.