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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/25404

Title: A Composite View of Surface Signatures and Interior Properties of Nonlinear Internal Waves: Observations and Applications
Authors: Ming-Huei Chang;Ren-Chieh Lien;Yiing Jang Yang;Tswen Yung Tang;Joe Wang
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Marine Environmental Informatics
Keywords: Internal waves
Date: 2008
Issue Date: 2011-10-20T08:23:07Z
Publisher: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology
Abstract: abstract:Surface signatures and interior properties of large-amplitude nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) in the South China Sea (SCS) were measured during a period of weak northeast wind (2 m s−1) using shipboard marine radar, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), a conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) profiler, and an echo sounder. In the northern SCS, large-amplitude NLIWs propagating principally westward appear at the tidal periodicity, and their magnitudes are modulated at the spring–neap tidal cycle. The surface scattering strength measured by the marine radar is positively correlated with the local wind speed when NLIWs are absent. When NLIWs approach, the surface scattering strength within the convergence zone is enhanced. The sea surface scattering induced by NLIWs is equivalent to that of a 6 m s−1 surface wind speed (i.e., 3 times greater than the actual surface wind speed). The horizontal spatial structure of the enhanced sea surface scattering strength predicts the horizontal spatial structure of the NLIW. The observed average half-amplitude full width of NLIWs λη/2 is 1.09 ± 0.2 km; the average half-amplitude full width of the enhanced scattering strength λI/2 is 0.57 λη/2. The average half-amplitude full width of the enhanced horizontal velocity convergence of NLIWs λ∂xu/2 is approximately equal to λI/2. The peak of the enhanced surface scattering leads the center of NLIWs by 0.46 λη/2. NLIW horizontal velocity convergence is positively correlated with the enhancement of the surface scattering strength. NLIW amplitude is positively correlated with the spatial integration of the enhancement of the surface scattering strength within the convergence zone of NLIWs. Empirical formulas are obtained for estimating the horizontal velocity convergence and the amplitude of NLIWs using radar measurements of surface scattering strength. The enhancement of the scattering strength exhibits strong asymmetry; the scattering strength observed from behind the propagating NLIW is 24% less than that observed ahead, presumably caused by the skewness and the breaking of surface waves induced by NLIWs. Above the center of NLIWs, the surface scattering strength is enhanced slightly, associated with isotropic surface waves presumably induced or modified by NLIWs. This analysis concludes that in low-wind conditions remote sensing measurements may provide useful predictions of horizontal velocity convergences, amplitudes, and spatial structures of NLIWs. Further applications and modification of the presented empirical formulas in different conditions of wind speed, surface waves, and NLIWs or with other remote sensing methods are encouraged.
Relation: 25, pp.1218–1227
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/25404
Appears in Collections:[海洋環境資訊系] 期刊論文

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