abstract:We analyzed the high-resolution foraminifer isotope records, total organic carbon (TOC), and opal content from an Okinawa Trough core MD012404 in order to estimate the monsoon hydrography and productivity changes in the East China Sea (ECS) of the tropical western Pacific over the past 100,000 years. The variability shown in the records on orbital time scales indicates that high TOC intervals coincide with the increases of boreal May–September insolation driven by precession cycles (~21 ka), implying a strong connection to the variations in monsoons. We also observed possibly nearly synchronous, millennial-scale changes of the ECS surface hydrography (mainly driven by salinity changes but also by temperature effects) and productivity coincident with monsoon events in the Hulu/Dongge stalagmite isotope records. We found that increased freshening and high productivity correlate with high monsoon intensity in interstadials. This study suggests that the millennial-scale changes in monsoon hydrography and productivity in the ECS are remarkable and persistent features over the past 100,000 years.