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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/24191

Title: 中間流對集水區降雨逕流模擬之影響
Authors: 張進鑫;李光敦
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Harbor and River Engineering
國立臺灣海洋大學:河海工程學系
Keywords: 中間流;集水區降雨逕流模擬;地形指數;地貌瞬時單位歷線理論;漫地流糙度係數
Date: 2004-03
Issue Date: 2011-10-20T08:10:38Z
Publisher: 中國農業工程學報
Abstract: 摘要:傳統水模式大多以直接逕流概念進行集水區降雨逕流模擬,而直接逕流歷線係由地表逕與中間流所組成。在實際降雨逕流過程中,集水區內地表逕流往往僅發生於河川附近,地下水位較高且土壤水分達飽和之部分集水面積,而落於土壤水分未達飽和地區之降雨,其水體入滲至地面下後,是以中間流形式於淺層土壤中運行至河川,其水流運行機制與地表逕流並不相同。 由於集水區地形指數已被廣泛應用於推算集水區內發生地表逕流之區域,因此本研究應用集水區地形指數值,將集水區區分為產生地表逕流之部分集水面積與僅有中間流運行之非飽和地區;研究中應用運動波理論配合曼寧公式及達西公式,分別模擬集水區地表逕流與中間流之運行,並配合地貌瞬時單位歷線理論建立降雨逕流模式,以探討中間流對集水區皆雨逕流模擬之影響。 本研究以臺灣北部橫溪集水區為模式應用集水區,藉由數值高程模式推求集水區地形指數與地文因子,並以實際颱洪事件進行逕流模擬分析。結果顯示,中間流對集水區逕流歷線退水段之模擬影響甚為明顯;且研究中發現,以直接逕流概念為基礎之水文模式所檢定的漫地流糙度係數值,會因颱洪事件之中間流所佔比例的大小而有所弈異。而應用本研究所發展之降雨逕流模擬方式,其漫地流糙度係數之檢定值變異甚小,且對尖峰流或逕流歷線上升段與退水段之模擬,皆能得到良好的模擬結果。
abstract:In conventional rainfall-runoff models, the direct runoff, which includes surface flow and interflow, was the main process for runoff simulation. Field investigations showed that surface flow is contributed only the area near channel or those areas with high groundwater level; nevertheless, subsurface flow is percolating water that encounters and impeding horizon in shallow soil, where the water is diverted horizontally and reaches the stream channel. Since the topographic index ix extensively adopted for estimating the partial contributing area where the surface flow occurs, the topographic index is used to divide the watershed into partial contributing area (generating surface runoff) and unsaturated area (generating interflow) in this study. A geomorphic instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) model, which considers both surface flow and interflow, was adopted for rainfall-runoff simulation based on kinematic-wave approximation using Manning’s formula and Darcy’s equation for runoff travel time estimation in overland and in subsurface region, respectively. The Heng-Chi watershed in northern Taiwan was used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed model and to investigate the influences of interflow on watershed rainfall-runoff modeling. The topographic index and geomorphic factors of the study watershed were obtained using a DEM. The results showed that the interflow has significant influences on hydrograph recession limb. Furthermore, the calibrated value of the overland roughness coefficient was found varying with the ration of the interflow volume to the total runoff volume suing conventional runoff model. Nevertheless, by coefficient was found limited to small range and having good simulation results both in the rising and recession limbs of the hydrographs.
Relation: 50(1), pp.50-62
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/24191
Appears in Collections:[河海工程學系] 期刊論文

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