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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/23235

Title: 清代民間生活知識的掌握——從《萬寶元龍雜字》到《萬寶全書》
Acquiring The Life Knowledge In Ch'ing Dynasty : From Wan Pao Yuan Lung Tsa Tzu To Wan Pao Chuan Shu
Authors: 吳蕙芳
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Oceanic Culture
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋文化研究所
Keywords: 萬寶元龍雜字;萬寶全書;童蒙書;民間日用類書;庶民文化
Wan Pao Yuan Lung Tsa Tzu;Wan Pao Chuan Shu;nursery book;Popular Encyclopedia For Daily Use;Popular Culture
Date: 2002
Issue Date: 2011-10-20T07:55:41Z
Publisher: 「第十屆清史國際研討會」,大連:中國北京故宮博物院主辦,遼寧師範 大學歷史系承辦
Abstract: 本文嘗試了解清代庶民大眾經由文字閱讀掌握生活知識的可能性,欲勾勒民間社會獲取生活知識的途徑,並藉此呈現民間生活知識的傳遞管道。
清代民間社會生活知識的掌握是由雜事書與民間日用類書接軌而成。雜字書本庶民大眾童蒙用識字課本,廣乏流行中下層社會,明清時期蓬勃發展成數種類型。最初級雜字書專供童蒙識字用,內容不分類,多以韻語及連屬成文方式呈現。較高級雜字書在前述識字基礎上予以複習或再擴充字詞量,以鞏固識字根基;此種雜字書內容已有分類,故各類字詞數量明顯增加,唯仍以韻語及連屬成文方式呈現。
真正與前者迴異的雜字書以《萬寶元龍雜字》為代表;此雜字書內容非韻語及連屬成文字詞,乃分類釋義的個別字詞,似字典或辭典類工具書;且書中新增若干生活知識,令書籍趨向家庭生活手冊性質,更具檢索功能。又雜字書在適用對象亦有擴展,《萬寶元龍雜字》一書不論就書名、書旨、書籍來源與內容觀察,均明白顯示已轉型為士庶並用,適用層級不限童蒙。
此種雜字書實可與《萬寶全書》類的民間日用類書接軌;因《萬寶元龍雜字》的字詞釋義可為了解《萬寶元龍雜字》中各生活知識內容的基礎,而《萬寶全書》的生活知識範圍又較《萬寶元龍雜字》廣泛,更適用於庶民大眾日常生活使用。故清代民間對生活知識的掌握,是以最初級與較高級雜字書開始奠定閱讀基礎,再經由識字與雜用混合類雜字書以辨識、查核字詞,並檢索部分生活知識;最後,透過民間日用類書全面掌握生活知識。
The purpose of this paper is to understand the possibility of general people through reading to acquire the daily life knowledge in Ch'ing Dynasty, to picture how general people possess daily common knowledge, and to present the way to deliver the knowledge.
Acquiring daily life knowledge among general people is through the Tsa Tzu books and the Popular Encyclopedias For Daily Use. The Tsa Tzu books are originally used for the general people to give initiate lesson for children, and are popular among middle and lower level of the society. They are very popular during Ming and Ch'ing Dynasties. Then there developed few different types. The basic level Tsa Tzu books are for children at initiate stage to study, without classified contents. They are mainly presented in rhyming words and related semantic composition. The higher–level Tsa Tzu books are reviewing the basics and expanding vocabulary to build solid foundation, the contents are also classified. Hence, the glossary of wordings are significantly increasing, though are still presented by means of rhyming words and related semantic composition.
Wan Pao Yuan Lung Tsa Tzu is the representative of Tsa Tzu books; which differs than the previous types. Contents of this Tsa Tzu books are not the rhyming words and related semantic composition, they are classified individual characters with explanation of the meaning, and it's more like a dictionary sort of tool book. Besides, there added some daily life knowledge. This enabled the book became more like a booklet of family life, with index functions. On the other hand, the applicable readers are expanded, too. From title, purpose, resources and contents speaking of the book, Wan Pao Yuan Lung Tsa Tzu has obviously transformed as for readers to both general people as well as scholars, and the applicable level is more than for initiation studies. The sort of Tsa Tzu books could be connected to general people's daily life. Since, the explanations for vocabulary in Wan Pao Yuan Lung Tsa Tzu could be as the foundation for understanding contents of daily life knowledge in Wan Pao Chuan Shu . In addition, the scope of daily life knowledge in Wan Pao Chuan Shu is wider than in the Wan Pao Yuan Lung Tsa Tzu and more applicable for usage in general people's daily life. Therefore, the acquiring of general people's daily life knowledge in Ch'ing Dynasty laid the reading foundation on the basic and higher-level of Tsa Tzu books. Then through recognizing words and cross using Tsa Tzu books to recognize and look up glossary of wordings, and searching for partial daily life knowledge. At last, to complete acquire the daily life knowledge with using the Popular Encyclopedias For Daily Use.
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/23235
Appears in Collections:[海洋文化研究所] 演講及研討會

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