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Title: 「日用」與「類書」的結合——從《事林廣記》到《萬事不求人》
The Combination of "Daily Use" and "Encyclopedia": From Shih-Lin-Kuang-Chi to Wan-Shih-Pu-Chiu-Jen
Authors: 吳蕙芳
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Oceanic Culture
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋文化研究所
Keywords: 類書;日用類書;民間日用類書;事林廣記;居家必用事類全集;居家必備;多能鄙事;便民圖纂;萬寶全書;萬事不求人
Encyclopedia;Encyclopedia for daily use;Popular encyclopedia for daily use;Shih-Lin-Kuang-Chi;Chu-Chia-Pi-Yung-Shih-Lei-Chuan-Chi;Chu-Chia-Fi-Pei;To-Neng-Pi-Shih;Pien-Min-Tu-Tsuan;Wan-Pao-Chuan-Shu;Wa
Date: 2005
Issue Date: 2011-10-20T07:55:22Z
Publisher: 輔仁歷史學報
Abstract: 摘要:家庭生活百科全書始於宋元時《事林廣記》,書籍源自正宗類書,載綜合性內容,首將「日用」生活知識與「類書」傳統知識體系架構相結合,並隨時代發展、社會需要日趨實用通俗。明版《事林廣記》較元版《事林廣記》實用通俗,而《居家必用事類全集》系列日用類書更掙脫傳統知識體系架構,朝更實用通俗方向邁進,且此系列書籍已逐漸強調為「民」之意;至晚明《萬寶全書》系列民間日用類書出現後,實承繼《事林廣記》傳統知識體系架構與《居家必用事類全集》系列日用類書般更實用內容刊載,書籍通俗化更為明顯,並真正普及四民大眾。 晚明以來《萬寶全書》系列民間日用類書不斷刊行,至清代有《新增懸金萬寶全書》出現,內容新增識字教材,使書籍非僅供生活知識參考用之民間日用類書,乃兼具識字認詞、檢索字詞意義與生活知識功能的教科書與工具書,適用對象不限成人,及於童蒙與初學識字者。清末以來又有《萬事不求人》系列民間日用類書產生,分屬兩大系統,一全載生活知識,僅具民間日用類書功能,然內容跳脫傳統知識體系架構更強調實用;一兼刊識字與生活知識內容,惟識字內容大增且更為連貫完整,其考量童蒙與初學識字者的需要實甚於具基礎閱讀能力之成人。 綜觀家庭生活百科全書從《事林廣記》到《萬事不求人》之發展歷程,主要變化趨勢有二,即內容愈趨實用通俗與適用對象愈為普及廣泛,此一書籍發展現象或可用以說明明清以來的庶民大眾,企圖經由文字閱讀方式掌握生活知識,以達「萬事不求人」目的;亦可作為民間社會日漸成長發展以追求生活獨立自主的一個例證。
Encyclopedia for family living appears in Sung and Yuan dynasties and begins Shih-Lin-Kuang-Chi. These books source of master encyclopedia, being recorded synthetic contents, originally put living knowledge for ”daily use”, which being combined with ”Encyclopedia” traditional knowledge system structure, and according to the era development and the society needs, they became more practical and popular. In addition, the Ming edition of Shih-Lin-Kuang-Chi was more practical and popular than the one in Yuan period, and the ”Chu-Chia-Fi-Yung-Shih-Lei-Chuan-Chi” series of encyclopedia for daily use got rid of traditional knowledge system structure and moved toward more practical and popular directions, while these types of books were gradually emphasized what civil needs and been used by the people, Till the presence of the Wan-Pao-Chuan-Shu, series of popular encyclopedia for daily use in late Ming Dynasty, which being actually inherited from the traditional knowledge system structure of Shih-Lin-Kuang-Chi, as well as the Chu-Chia-Pi-Yung-Shih-Lei-Chuan-Chi series of encyclopedia for daily use with more practical contents recorded. Thus, these types of books were more and more practical and popular, and obviously available to all levels of people.
Since late Ming Dynasty, the Wan-Pao-Chuan-Shu series of popular encyclopedia for daily use have been continuously published. Till Ching Dynasty, there appeared the Hsin-Tseng-Hsuan-Chin- Wan-Pao-Chuan-Shu, as adding additional new literate material into the contents, which in order to not only provide reference for living knowledge, but also functioned as the textbooks and tool books of learning and understanding new vocabularies and phases, as well as seeking for their meanings, and living knowledge. Meanwhile, it is not only suitable for adults, but also children and beginners of learning vocabularies and phases. After late Ching Dynasty, the series of popular encyclopedia for daily use of Wan-Shih-Pu-Chiu-Jen was come out of print. It belongs to two big systems, the one with whole recorded living knowledge, which includes functions of popular encyclopedia for daily use, as well as contents being got rid of traditional knowledge system structure are more emphasized on people's using; while the other with literate material and contents of living knowledge, its literate material Contents are widely increased and more consistent and complete, as well as its consideration of needs of being enlightened children and literate material beginners are much more than those adults with basic reading ability.
All in all, the development process of encyclopedia for family living from Shih-Lin-Kuang-Chi through Wan-Shih-Pu-Chiu-Jen have two key trends of changes. More practical and popular contents, more readers applied to. The development of this kind of books may be used to illustrate average people since Ming-Ching dynasties, attempt to manage living knowledge through the method of character reading to achieve the goal of ”Don't need to ask for other's help in everything”, which is recognized as an evidence of the civil society gradually being grown-up and developed in order to seek for independence of living.
Relation: 16, pp.85-124
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/handle/987654321/23112
Appears in Collections:[海洋文化研究所] 期刊論文

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