|Abstract: ||摘要:由於海上航行安全的需求,船舶自動化的趨勢,以及船舶人員配置之日益精簡,促使當今之航海科技工業又向前邁入另一新紀元。國際間「電子海圖顯示與資訊系統」(Electronic chart display and information system; ECDIS)發展至今,各副系統之功能已逐漸地趨於標準化及規格化,除了許多先進國家之官方組織及電子航儀供應廠商努力從事開發以爭取國際領導地位及占有這一片尚未開發的國際市場外,聯合國國際海事組織與國際海洋測量組織聯合組成的電子海圖顯示與資訊系統協調小組(IMO/IHO Harmonization Group on ECDIS: IMO/IHO-HGE)也積極地研究立法,以期電子海圖顯示與資訊系統能合法地取代傳統的紙製海圖。 發展海洋事業,應是我們海島國家刻不容緩之重要政策,海上航行的安全,更是發展海洋事業的先決條件。電子海圖顯示與資訊系統領域在我國之發展較緩,而目前實際從事測量與製作海圖的「海軍海洋測量局」在此領域之發展,又受限於國外相關資訊不足、人員配置有限、以及該局眾多繁瑣業務等之影響,進展速度緩慢。由其在主管單位為「交通部」抑「國防部」之間權責不明情況下,預料我國在電子海圖顯示與資訊系統領域之發展將受到重大影響。 本研究工作之進行,除了對各先進國家於電子海圖顯示與資訊系統之發展有概略之介紹外,也對聯合國國際海事組織與國際海洋測量組織所提出之「電子海圖顯示與資訊系統規格草案」深入分析、評估並具體建議,期能提供我國各有關單位或航儀製造廠商於將來發展電子海圖顯示與資訊系統時之參考。|
Abstract:In their past duties, navigation officers had a number of electronic and electrical aids to help them make safe and efficient voyages. However, these navigation aids functioned as independent, stand-alone units. The officer drew on his experience, training and mental agility to coordinate the various functions of the equipments available to him, so as to obtain optimum results. How successful the officer was in this coordinating role is difficult to access, though there is evidence that the mariner, when under stress or at times of peak work load, is sometimes a poor coordinator of the information available to him from the equipment on the bridge. A committee investigating human error in merchant marine safety published a report attributing 80 percent of vessel collisions, rammings and groundings to human error. The International Maritime Organization has also indicated that enquiries into maritime casualties show that most maritime accidents are caused by human error. For safety reasons, the development of Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) is desirable to reduce involvement of human factors in ship control. Efforts of the development of ECDIS is designed to eliminate a ship's deck officer's burden from routine tasks, such as taking instrument readings, doing position fixing calculations, and plotting or logging. Thus, his attention cab be concentrated upon assessment of navigation situations so that the proper decisions on ship handling can be made. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) have set up numerous committees to consider different aspects of ECDIS. In 1988, IMO and IHO have formed a so-called Harmonization Group on ECDIS (HGE) to prepare Provisional Performance Standard for ECDIS to be adopted by IMO. This will made it possible for ECDIS designers to use these standards to make the system "equivalent" to the paper chart. It is significant, because it implies that it can be used to exclusion of paper charts without the danger of inadmissibility during litigation. This study is set to evaluate the proposed IMO/IHO Provisional Performance Standards for ECDIS. Recommendations have been made at the end of this research contributing the related maritime administrations, institutes, hydrographic office, manufacturers, mariners and shipowners.