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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/18905

Title: 模糊理論於船舶避碰最佳決策之研究-海洋地理資訊系統之應用
Study on an Optimal Decision of Collision Avoidance for Vessels via Fuzzy Theory-An Application of Marine Geographic Information System
Authors: Chien-Min Su
蘇健民
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Electrical Engineering
國立臺灣海洋大學:電機工程學系
Keywords: 船舶自動識別系統;模糊邏輯理論;避碰決策;避碰知識庫;碰撞危險領域;海洋地理資訊系統
AIS;Collision Avoidance Decision;Collision Avoidance Knowledge Base;Collision Danger Domain;Fuzzy Logic Theory;MGIS
Date: 2010
Issue Date: 2011-07-04T01:07:46Z
Abstract: 本論文提出新的船舶避碰最佳決策方法,解決當會遇船舶可能遭遇碰撞危機時,得以適時採取避碰措施,使船舶保持安全會遇距離以相互通過。 早期船舶交通服務(VTS)系統係利用RADAR/ARPA設備對船舶動態進行監控與提供簡單資訊的服務,目前已整合船舶自動識別系統(AIS),針對進出港與航行於沿岸的船舶提供更多的航行安全資訊、建議與監督服務。不同於其它相關研究,本論文以絶對觀測的角度,提出碰撞危險領域的新概念,並建構完成船舶避碰決策系統。本系統包括AIS編碼轉換資料庫模組、船舶避碰知識庫模組及模糊碰撞危險領域模組。透過MS Visual Studio 2005軟體程式,AIS編碼轉換資料庫模組可順利將AIS與海洋地理資訊系統(MGIS)兩種不同介面平台整合成功,並提供船舶避碰知識庫模組及模糊碰撞危險領域模組運算過程所需之資料。結合國際海上避碰規則(COLREGs)與AIS,利用船舶避碰知識庫模組可將船舶會遇情勢的劃分及避讓規則進行程式化,針對會遇船舶界定出直航船與讓路船,並決定彼此權利及義務關係,以做為後續避讓行動之依據。模糊碰撞危險領域模組在於解算模糊碰撞危險領域的大小,進而建議讓路船採取避讓措施之最佳用舵點及轉向舵角,俾供兩船會遇時得以保持安全距離而彼此通過。 當海上航行船舶會遇,可能產生碰撞危機時,本論文提出之船舶避碰決策系統將可針對會遇船舶進行船舶避碰之最佳決策建議。首先,利用AIS編碼轉換資料庫模組即時接收船舶動靜態相關資訊,並編碼轉換成MGIS可讀取之資訊,俾供系統後續分析之用。接著,利用船舶避碰知識庫模組研判船舶會遇態勢,再引用避碰知識庫相關規則界定出直航船與讓路船並決定彼此權利及義務關係,以做為後續採取避讓行動之依據。最後,利用模糊碰撞危險領域模組解算模糊碰撞危險領域,並建議讓路船採取避碰措施之轉向舵角及最佳用舵點,俾供兩船會遇時得以保持安全距離相互通過。其中,模糊碰撞危險領域係應用模糊邏輯理論解算求得,藉以界定兩船會遇應保持之安全會遇距離,在該領域內,禁止會遇船舶進入,若有會遇船舶進入,則代表將發生碰撞危險。模糊邏輯理論應用過程,影響輸出語意變數的輸入語意變數甚多,為求客觀與準確,將以分析層級程序法(AHP)排序取決。而最佳用舵點的決定係使用操船模擬機以本船船模實操迴旋圈試驗並利用MGIS解析計算得到各轉向舵角所需之蹤距值,以供船舶避碰決策之用。為驗證本論文研究成果,設計案例模擬各種船舶會遇態勢,藉由船舶避碰決策系統之運作,於船舶採取避碰措施時,不考慮減速,僅以轉向避讓,透過AIS/MGIS整合,以MGIS做為AIS的顯像系統,完成船舶避碰之最佳決策機制。 未來研究方向,將考慮船舶之船舶操縱性能及慣性力作用,當讓路船於採取右舵轉向避讓,碰撞危機解除後,求解最佳回舵時機(或回舵點)及回舵的用舵舵角,使船舶順利回歸原航向。另外,本論文僅針對兩船會遇態勢進行分析與探討,未來可考慮更複雜的多船會遇情況,探討多船避碰決策機制。而VTS主要貢獻在增進海上人命安全、提升航行安全與效率及保護海洋環境,本論文提出的船舶避碰決策系統將可應用於VTS管制中心,整合VTS/AIS/MGIS,建構一套VTS模糊監控系統,作為VTS對多艘船舶航行安全監控與給予正確與適當的用舵時機與用舵舵角之建議。
The purpose of this thesis is to propose a new collision avoidance decision method for vessels, allowing vessels at risk of collision to take timely collision avoidance measures so as to ensure safe passage. In this thesis, a collision avoidance decision system (CADS) will be proposed to decide the optimal rudder procedure (timing and angle of steering rudder) for collision avoidance decision based on fuzzy logic theory (FLT) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The CADS includes automatic identification system (AIS) transcode database module, collision avoidance knowledge base (CAKB) module and fuzzy collision danger domain (FCDD) module. The AIS transcode database module can integrate AIS with marine geographic information system (MGIS) and provide data for the CADS. For vessels in potential collision danger, the proposed method will use Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 to establish a CAKB module based on the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGs) and AIS. The FCDD module can calculate a collision danger domain (CDD) and suggest an appropriate avoidance technique. Thus, based on an analysis of the situation when encountering other vessels, the CAKB will determine stand-on vessel or give-way vessel and using the CADS to propose a novel CDD that forbids entering for give-way vessel. Considering the required advance for vessel turning, the CADS will suggest the optimal rudder steering procedure for the give-way vessel, allowing the vessel to avoid collision and ensure navigation safety. The avoidance action taken by the vessel does not consider reducing speed, but focuses only on rudder steering instead. The system also integrates VTS/AIS/MGIS by using MGIS as an AIS imaging system to facilitate the optimal decision for vessel collision avoidance and determines the input linguistic variables for the fuzzy logic theory via an AHP. As to the future study, the goal of course again will be implemented after the give-way vessel action to avoid collision. The optimal timing and angle of ease rudder and midship will be suggested according to the manoeuvrability index and inertia of vessel. Besides, the proposed method can extend to a multi-vessels encounter situation. The proposed CADS can establish a VTS fuzzy monitoring system to enhance the VTS operator’s decision-making abilities for collision avoidance by the integration of VTS/AIS/MGIS.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0D92530003
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/18905
Appears in Collections:[電機工程學系] 博碩士論文

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