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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/18279

Title: 結合影像處理之小型船舶內模式控制自航器設計及實驗
Design and Experiment of an Internal Model Control Small Boat Autopilot Based on Image Processing Techniques
Authors: Chi-Chun Huang
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Communications Navigation and Control Engineering
Keywords: 影像處理;CCD攝影機;疊標導航;內模式控制;自航器
Image Processing;CCD Camera;Leading Line Guidance;Internal Model Control;Autopilot
Date: 2008
Issue Date: 2011-07-04
Abstract: 本文主旨在於以小型船舶為測試平台,利用影像處理技術,建立以電腦視覺為回授機制之船舶自動進港與靠泊系統。其中影像資訊以CCD攝影機擷取前方目標物,並配合疊標導航概念,經由影像處理技術分析與計算目標物之幾何中心位置,作為影像導航所需的航向角修正量與距離估測,並經由距離估測資訊來啟動靠泊控制。整體流程依據航向角修正量啟動左右舵令,將船舶導引、控制於預定航道線上至待泊區,再執行靠泊操作。在影像處理方面採用顏色辨別,經由適當選取影像成份中H[色調(Hue)]與S[飽和度(Saturation)]的篩選值 、 與 、 值,經由中值濾波及閉合(closing)處理等,達到疊標鎖定。控制器採用內模式控制(IMC, Internal Model Control)之不穩定設計法則進行設計。靠泊控制器使用船舶與岸壁距離作為橫移控制回授之用,並結合平擺角之控制使船舶有平順且穩定之橫移運動。總結,本研究之實驗軟體使用MATLAB/Simulink 所提供之Real Time xPC Target 環境,並整合實驗載具(小型FRP船)、電力模組、影像擷取模組、控制模組、舵機模組等次系統硬體架構整合,完成影像處理導引船舶進港與靠泊的測試評估及實船驗證之工作。
This paper is concerned with the application of image processing technique to the approaching and berthing control of a small boat. The leading line concept used by pilots in ship handling practice is adopted in this work. Specifically, two canvas targets arranged in tandem on the berth site define a leading line, which serves as the reference track to be followed in the approaching phase. Another set of canvas targets is used for berthing purpose. The images of the targets are captured by a CCD camera installed on the bow of the boat. The geometric center of the image is computed via image processing technique, and the distances between the fore and aft targets are used to compute the heading angle information needed in guiding the boat towards the reference track defined by the leading line. Moreover, the distance between the boat and the berthing site is estimated using the target image data via simple trigonometric relation. Comparison with the DGPS measurements is made to evaluate the relative accuracy of the distance estimated. The estimated distance is both used in activating the berthing mode, and used as the feedback error signal in the berthing mode. The Hue (H) and Saturation (S) components of the images are employed in the image processing, and the Internal Model Control (IMC) is used in designing the autopilot. Successful small-boat-based approaching maneuver along the reference track and berthing towards the berth indicate the feasibility of the proposed image processing-based autopilot system.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M95670004
Appears in Collections:[通訊與導航工程學系] 博碩士論文

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