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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/17457

Title: 台灣東北角天然岩岸與人工海岸(水泥消波塊)魚類群聚之比較
Comparative studies on the fish assemblages between the natural and artificial coastlines along northeastern Taiwan
Authors: Kun-Ping Kan
甘昆平
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Marine Biology
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋生物研究所
Keywords: 天然海岸;人工海岸;消波塊;魚類群聚
natural coastlines;artificial coastlines;breakwater;fish assemblages
Date: 2010
Issue Date: 2011-07-04
Abstract: 棲地被破壞與棲地碎裂是造成海洋生物多樣性喪失的重要原因之一。台灣的天然海岸由於過度地人工化或水泥化,包括建築漁港、修築堤防與投放消波塊,使人工海岸的總長度已遠遠超過天然海岸而應已成為世界之冠。天然海岸棲地在人工化後究竟對原來的魚類群聚生態有何影響或造成什麼改變,過去一直欠缺研究調查之資料。 有鑑於此,本研究乃於96年5月至7月就東北角七處測站(南雅、鼻頭、龍洞、金沙灣、美艷山、福隆及卯澳)之人工消波塊淺水區與其鄰近相距在20-50公尺之天然礁岸淺水區(2公尺以淺)進行各三次,每次三重覆的水下觀測。每處共九次的觀測結果,共記錄到天然礁岸之魚類共有28科95種,而人工海岸只有17科41種,不論是種數或尾數在以上七處地點均以天然礁岸之豐度顯著地高於人工礁岸。多變值空間排序(MDS)與相似性分析(Bray-Curtis)的結果皆顯示兩棲地之魚類群聚組成有顯著差異(R2=0.821)。因此項差異並不隨兩種棲地周圍底質相似度變化而改變,同時亦不受七處不同地點間可能有微棲地或地理性之差異所影響(R2=0.324),據此推論魚類群聚組成之差異純為棲地人工化所致。魚種組成分析的結果顯示兩棲地半定棲性與巡游魚種比例有差異,人工海岸具有較高比例之巡游性魚種,如伍氏下銀漢魚、南方舵魚、黃尾金梭魚等。造成兩棲地魚類群聚變異之主要差異魚種如下:霓虹雀鯛、孟加拉豆娘魚、六線豆娘魚、藍紋高身雀鯛、斷紋紫胸魚、條紋豆娘魚及新月錦魚均以天然礁岸為多;六斑二齒魨、梭地豆娘魚及黃尾金梭魚係以人工海岸為多。 本研究之結果顯示東北角天然海岸棲地與人工消波塊區域之魚類群聚顯著不同。天然海岸魚類之種數、個體數、豐度與多樣性指數皆明顯高於人工消波塊區,且此項差異並不受到測站附近底質之構型不同而影響。且人工海岸之魚類群聚變異大,魚種組成不穩定、魚種多樣性低。而上述之魚類群聚差異之主因為天然海岸放置消波塊後所造成之海岸構型或底質之差異,因附著生物群聚之不同,食物及微棲地之不同而減少。為了保持海岸生態的多樣性與穩定,應支持政府推動「天然海岸零損失」之政策。若能更近一步的停止投放或撤除過多的消波塊則是目前海岸生態保護與復育應努力的方向。
Habitat destruction and habitat fragmentation is one of the main causes that downgrade marine biodiversity. In Taiwan, more than half of its total natural coastal lines have been changed to artificial coastal lines by way of ports constructions and jetty and breakwater installations. These structures have made the ratio of Taiwan’s artificial coastlines the highest of the world. How serious the effects are of these concrete coastlines on fish assemblages have never been fully investigated. For this reason, we chose 7 artificial coastal sites in northeastern Taiwan (Nanya, Bitou, Longtung, Jinsahwan, Meiyenshan, Fulong, and Maoao) and nearby natural reefs (20-50 m apart) to conduct underwater visual census with 3 replicates at each site (< 2m water depth). These census were repeated 3 times from May to July 2007 for a total of 9 observations at each site. For all 7 sites together, 95 species in 28 families were recorded from the natural reefs and 41 species in 17 families were recorded from the artificial coastlines. Whether it is the number of species or the number of fishes at the 7 sites, the richness of fish in the natural reefs are all significantly higher than that of the artificial reefs. The result from the multivariate statistical analysis using ordination (MDS) and the clustering analysis (Bray-Curtis Index of Similarity) also show a significant difference between the two kinds of habitats (R2=0.821). This difference is not affected by the substratum types surrounding these two different habitats, nor is it affected by the possible difference of micro-habitat or geographical differences among these 7 sites (R2=0.324). Among those dominate species, the species of Pomacentrus coelestis, A. bengalensis, Stegastes fasciolatus, Stethojulis interrupta and Thalasoma lunare are more abundant in natural reefs than in artificial coastlines. Diodon holocanthus, Sphyraena flavicauda and Abudefduf sordidus are in reversed situation. The possible reasons for the change of fish assemblages and the decrease of species diversity are the lack of sessile and encrusting organisms and shelters for small reef fishes causing the habitat and food resources in the artificial coastlines much less than those of the natural coastlines. To maintain the diversity and stability of coastline ecology, it is very important to stop further coastal urbanization or breakwater installation along the coastlines.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M94340021
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/17457
Appears in Collections:[海洋生物研究所] 博碩士論文

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