|Abstract: ||臺灣屬於海島國家，對外貿易依存度相當高。鉅額的進出口貿易，引申龐大之運輸需求。面對微利競爭時代，運送人竭力提供託運人差異化運輸服務，以提升物流服務品質與競爭力，因此對運送人而言，託運人選擇運送服務所考量的關鍵影響因素確實是重要的研究課題。過去研究多以高科技產業結合空運，或非高科技產業結合海運分別進行探討，亦鮮少將國際海空運承攬物流業者納入託運人之範疇。本文目的主要係為分析高科技、非高科技、海運承攬物流、空運承攬物流等業者間，不同屬性的託運人選擇海空運送人所考量的關鍵影響因素之重要性及其影響程度，並釐清關鍵影響因素間之因果關係。研究方法主要採用專家決策模糊德菲法(Fuzzy Delphi Method)探求關鍵影響因素之重要性，並採用決策實驗室法(Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory, DEMATEL)釐清各項關鍵影響因素間之因果關係。本文實證研究發現如下： (1)託運人選擇運送人之關鍵影響因素，整體評估目的而言，以「運輸成本高低」為最重要，其次依序為「運輸時間長短」與「服務品質優劣」；而整體評估準則最重視「運輸時間可靠度」，其次依序為「貨物運輸安全」與「貨物通關效率」。 (2)整體評估關鍵影響因素之關聯性中，總影響程度最重要的因素為「運送時間可靠度」，其次依序為「公司商譽形象」、「貨物轉運安排」。其中，最主要的影響因素為「貨物通關效率」，其次依序為依序為「貨物運輸費」、「運輸航程時效性」。而最主要的被影響因素為「公司商譽形象」，其次依序為「貨物轉運安排」與「運送時間可靠度」。 本文研究結果可以提供海空運運送人作為擬定營運策略之參考，進而提升營運績效與競爭力。|
Since Taiwan is an isolated island-style economy, the extent of its dependence on foreign trade is rather high. Vast amount of import and export trade is the root cause triggering the substantial demand for transportation. While being confronted with fierce competition and the challenge of minimum profits within the global shipping market, carriers provide shippers with different transportation services to raise their service quality and competency. Thus, with regard to carriers, the key factors influencing shippers’ preferences for transportation service definitely play pivotal roles as research subjects. Previous research principally focused on the collaboration between high-tech industry and air transport industry, or the integration of non-high-tech industry and shipping industry, which often excluded international ocean freight forwarders and air cargo freight forwarders from the category of shippers. The main purpose of this research is to analyze the key influential factors, which should be taken into considerations while shippers bail cargos to carriers, within different industries, namely high-tech industry, non-high-tech industry, ocean freight forwarders and air cargo freight forwarders, and the degree of the key factors’ impacts. Through the method of questionnaire investigations, in order to examine more profoundly the significance of key influential factors on the selections of shippers with distinct attributes for shipping and air cargo carriers and the level of effects among varied influential factors in accordance with various shipping requirements, the four shippers in question (high-tech industry, non-high-tech industry, ocean freight forwarders and air cargo freight forwarders) involved are the main targets in this survey. This research will adopt Fuzzy Delphi Method to analyze the importance of the key influential factors, and, meanwhile, clarify the causal relationship among each influential factor by utilizing DEMATEL (Decision Making and Trial Evaluation Laboratory, DEMATEL). The new discoveries in this research are as follows: (1)As for the objectives of the integral evaluation, “Transportation costs” is the most significant among the objectives influencing the selections of carriers made by shippers. Second in term is “The amount of time for carriage”, and “Service quality” ranks the third. Further, concerning the integral evaluation criteria, “Reliability of Transportation Time” is valued the most, followed by “Safety for the carriage of cargos” and “Efficiency of Customs Clearance for Cargos”. (2)Based on the correlation among the key influential factors of the integral evaluation, “Reliability of Transportation Time” exerts the greatest effect on the overall influential degree, followed in descending order by “Goodwill of Corporations” and “Arrangements for Cargo Transfers”. More specifically, the main influential factor is “Efficiency of Customs Clearance for Cargos”, and following are “Expenses for Cargo Transportation” and “Time in transit”. Additionally, the most crucial influenced factor is “Goodwill of Corporations”, and the second and third among those being affected are “Arrangements for Cargo Transfers” and “Reliability of Transportation Time”. The outcomes of this research are expected to provide more explicit information as references for making operational strategies for both shipping and air cargo carriers, thereby promoting their operating performance and competitiveness.