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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/16154

Title: 超臨界甲醇提煉皂腳高酸油為生質柴油之研究
Investigation on Biodiesel Produced from High Acid Oil of Soybean Soapstock in Supercritical Methanol
Authors: Yi-Wei Lin
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Marine Engineering
Keywords: 生質柴油;高酸油;超臨界流體轉酯化
Biodiesel;high acid oil;transesterification process of supercritical methanol
Date: 2006
Issue Date: 2011-06-30T08:33:41Z
Abstract: 摘要 生質柴油為甚具發展潛力的一種替代性能源,主要是以動物脂肪或植物油原料,經化學方法生產而得的直鏈脂肪酸烷基酯。雖然生質柴油具有可再生性、生物分解性佳、無毒性、燃燒後排放的污染物濃度與市售柴油相比可大幅的降低等優點,但也有其技術瓶頸,例如:一般含高游離脂肪酸的原料油不適合使用鹼觸媒催化製程進行轉酯化反應,且原料油不可有過多的水分含量,否則會造成皂化物的產生並且會消耗催化劑;再者就是成本問題,以新鮮植物油提煉之生質柴油其原料成本較高,會使得產品較乏市場競爭力。以超臨界甲醇並使用低廉的高酸油為原料生產生質柴油,能有效的解決上述兩問題,且不需催化劑的添加,使得後處理淨化過程更為簡單。本實驗經使用不同的醇油莫耳比進行轉酯化反應後進行各項性質測試發現,醇油莫耳比42為較適當之條件,所製造出來的生質柴油的燃料性質較佳,包括較高的轉化率、熱值、十六烷指數及較低的酸價、運動黏度、含水量、比重與殘碳量等;在引擎的排氣特性上則較市售生質柴油有較高的bsfc及CO2和NOx排放濃度,並且有較低的CO和O2排放濃度,燃料轉換效率方面二者甚為接近。 關鍵字:生質柴油、高酸油、超臨界流體轉酯化。
Abstract Biodiesel or alkyl ester of straight-chain fatty acid which is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by chemical reaction has been considered an alternative clean fuel. Although biodiesel bears with superior fuel characteristics such as fine lubricity, excellent biodegradability, no poison, low pollutant emission in comparison with those of diesel fuel, a few technical bottlenecks for biodiesel production still exist. For examples, raw oil which contains high free fatty acids and high water content is not adaptable to alkali-catalyst transesterification process. Formation of soap compound, more consumption of catalyst, and low yield of biodiesel will appear if such raw oil is used. In addition, the use of fresh vegetable oil as raw oil generally requires higher cost of biodiesel production, resulting in its inferior competence in fuel market. To overcome these difficulties, a transesterification method of supercritical methanol was applied to produce biodiesel from high acid oils with low cost. No catalyst required and simpler purification at the end of biodiesel process make this method more attractive. Fuel properties of biodiesel which is produced with various molar ratio of methanol to raw oil were tested and analyzed in this experimental study. It is found that the biodiesel which is produced with molar ratio of methanol to oil equal to 42 had the best fuel properties among the biodiesels from various molar ratios. These superior fuel properties include higher conversion rate, heating value, cetane index, and lower acid number, kinematic viscosity, water content, specific gravity and carbon residue, etc. Moreover, the biodiesel from molar ratio equal to 42 was found to have higher bsfc and emissions of CO2, NOx while lower CO and O2 emissions in comparison with those of a commercial biodiesel. There is not obvious difference in the fuel conversion rate between these two biodiesels. Keywords: Biodiesel, high acid oil, transesterification process of supercritical methanol
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M94660002
Appears in Collections:[輪機工程學系] 博碩士論文

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