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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/15844

Title: 台灣海峽內橈腳類組成與水文季節變動之關係
Authors: Yang-Chi Lan
藍揚麒
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science
國立臺灣海洋大學:環境生物與漁業科學學系
Keywords: 浮游動物;橈腳類;台灣海峽;大陸沿岸海流;黑潮支流;南海海流
Zooplankton;Copepod;Taiwan Strait;China Coastal Current;Kuroshio Branch Current;South China Sea Current
Date: 2006
Issue Date: 2011-06-30T08:21:02Z
Abstract: 本研究配合2001年5月海研二號航次及2003年2月與2004年2、5、8及11月水試一號之5個航次,共計136個探測測站,分別利用網目大小為330 μm 之Bongo與ORI浮游生物採集網於台灣海峽進行浮游動物採樣與水文觀測,藉以了解橈腳類之群集結構與水文環境之關係。台灣海峽內的水文狀況主要受東北與西南季風的季節性變動而造成海流之季節性推移所影響。影響海峽內水文狀況的主要海流包括大陸沿岸流(China Coastal Current)、黑潮支流(Kuroshio Branch Current)與南海海流(South China Sea Current)。其中大陸沿岸流屬於低溫低鹽海流,冬季時受東北季風的推送進入台灣海峽; 而黑潮支流則為高溫高鹽海流,終年經由澎湖水道向北注入海峽;南海海流亦屬高溫高鹽海流,僅於西南季風盛行季節由南海向北流入海峽。海峽內營養鹽主要來自於大陸沿岸流與澎湖水道(Penghu Channel)之黑潮支流深層海水所提供。大陸沿岸流含豐富的營養鹽,如硝酸鹽(nitrate)、磷酸鹽(phosphate)及矽酸鹽(silicate),由東海沿大陸沿岸注入海峽。而黑潮支流上表層水(50 m以淺)屬貧營養鹽海水,但其深層海水(50 m以深)富含營養鹽(硝酸鹽、磷酸鹽及矽酸鹽)經由澎湖水道或於台灣淺灘(Taiwan Bank)附近水域以湧升的方式注入海峽。然而海南海流屬貧營養鹽海流(硝酸鹽除外)由南海流經海峽,使海峽呈現貧營養鹽狀態。 葉綠素濃度分布模式因浮游植物體型大小之不同而有所差異。較大型的浮游植物(>10 μm)主要分布於營養鹽濃度較高的海域,例如大陸沿岸流流經的海域,台灣淺灘附近湧升海域及台灣東北部湧升海域。其總葉綠素濃度於冬季達最高,春夏季較低,秋季時再度回升; 而體型較小的浮游植物(< 10 μm)分布範圍較為廣泛,即使在貧營養鹽環境(澎湖水道上表層水)亦有高的葉綠濃度。 在橈腳類的物種鑑定方面,調查期間共記綠了5目30科67屬200種橈腳類。其中Aetideus acutus (Aetideidae)、Pseudocalanus newani (Clausocalanidae)、 Eucalanus hyalinus (Eucalanidae)、Paraeuchaeta californica (Euchaetidae)、 Heterorhabdus fistulosu、H. insukaes (Heterorhabdidae)、Delius nudus (Paracalanidae)、Pontellina morii (Pontellidae)、Oithona oculata、O. pseudofrigida (Oithonidae)與Pachos dentatum (Oncaeidae)等11種橈腳類為台灣周邊海域之新記錄種。橈腳類之豐度隨時空間的推移而有所差異。2003年2月與2004年2、5、8、11月探測期間其總平均豐度分別為281.0 ± 134.7 inds/m3 (mean±SD),545.6 ± 460.7 inds/m3,794.5 ± 1162.8 inds/m3,771.8 ± 1581.3 inds/m3,1007.7 ± 1158 inds/m3。在空間分布方面,則主要分布於台灣海峽北部海域及台灣淺灘附近海域。由各季節橈腳類之豐度與浮游植物之相關分析結果顯示兩者間並無明顯相關性存在。歧異度(Shannon’s diversity index)與均勻度(Simpson’s evenness index)分析結果顯示受黑潮海流、黑潮支流與南海海流影響的海域有較高的物種多樣性,而且其優勢物種之間的豐度差異較小; 而受大陸沿岸流影響的海域及淡水河河口海域內橈腳類之物種多樣較低,且優勢物種之間的豐度差異較大。 此外,由群聚分析(Cluster analysis)結果配合水文之分布情形顯示,在水文狀況較為相似的海域其測站間橈腳類組成亦較為相似。主要優勢橈腳類亦隨著時間推移與水文環境之不同而有季節性差異存在。海峽內受大陸沿岸流影響之海域,其主要優勢種類為Calanus sninicus、Canthocalanus pauper、Oncaea venusta、Paracalanus aculeatus及P. parvus。而受南海海流影響之海域,其主要優勢種類包括Temora turbinata、Undinula vulgaris、Paracalanus aculeatus、Canthocalanus pauper、Clausocalanus minor、Acrocalanus gibber及Cosmocalanus darwini。而受黑潮及其支流影響海域內之主要優勢橈腳類為Oncaea venusta、Paracalanus aculeatus、Canthocalanus pauper、Cosmocalanus darwini及 Acrocalanus gibber,且其季節與年間變動較為明顯。另文中亦就各海流主要優勢橈腳類之季節性差異及其與水文狀況之關係加以論述。 本研究透過指標物種分析(Indicator species analysis)尋找各海流具代表性的指示物種。受黑潮支流影響的海域之指標物種包括Paraeucalanus attenuatus (IV=100 %)、Lucicutia curta (100 %), Sapphirina gemma (100 %)、Haloptilus longicornis (88.9 %)及Aetideus acutus (81.7 %)...等83種。而大陸沿岸流的指示物種則包括Euchaeta plana (100 %)、Calanus sinicus (86.8 %)、Corycaeus (Ditrichocorycaeus) affinis (85.7 %)及Acrocalanus gracilis (56.6 %)...等7種。至於南海海流的指示物種包括Corycaeus (Onychocorycaeus) pumilus (100 %)、Corycaeus (Urocorycaeus) longistylis (65.5 %)、Candacia ethiopica (59.7 %)、Labidocera acuta (57.3 %)、、Euterpina acutifrons (55.2 %)及Pontella fera (49.4)…等22種。 最後,本研究亦利用典型相關分析(Canonical correlation analysis)探討40種主要優勢橈腳類與6種水文參數之關係。
This study was carried out in May 2001 on board of the “Ocean Research II” and in five cruises of the “Fishery Research I” in February 2003 and February, May, August, and November 2004 in the Taiwan Strait (TS) to understand the relationship between copepod assemblage and hydrographic condition. Zooplankton samples of 136 stations were collected by using the Bongo-net or ORI-net with the same mesh size of 330 μm. Hydrographic conditions in the TS are influenced by the China Coastal Current (CCC), Kuroshio Branch Current (KBC), and South China Sea Current (SCSC) seasonally. The magnitude and strength of these currents vary with monsoons systems. The CCC is characterized with low temperature and salinity, and intrudes into the TS during our winter and autumn cruises when the northeasterly monsoon prevails. The KBC and SCSC are characterized with high temperature and salinity, but the former flows northward via the Penghu Channel into the TS year round, while the latter only invades the TS during the southwesterly monsoon seasons especially in the summer. Nutrients flux in the TS originated from the supplement of the CCC, the deeper waters in the Penghu Channel and the upwelling waters of the KBC in the Taiwan Bank. The CCC with large amount of nitrate, phosphate, and silicate flows southward from the ECS into the TS along the coast of China. The deeper waters of the KBC also with high concentrations of these four nutrients intrude into the TS via the Penghu Channel or in the form of upwelling in the Taiwan Bank. Spatial distributions of the chl-a concentration of large (> 10 μm) and small (< 10 μm) phytoplankton showed in different patterns. The chl-a concentrations (>10 μm) were higher in the shallow waters of the TS, the vicinity waters of the Taiwan Bank, and the northeastern Taiwan where nutrients were higher, and were highest in winter, but decreased in spring and summer, and increased in autumn. While the small phytoplankton showed wide distribution in the TS even in the nutrient limited surface water of the southeastern TS. In this study, 200 species of copepods contributing to 67 genera, 30 families and 5 orders were identified. Aetideus acutus (Aetideidae), Pseudocalanus newani (Clausocalanidae), Eucalanus hyalinus (Eucalanidae), Paraeuchaeta californica (Euchaetidae), Heterorhabdus fistulous, H. insukaes (Heterorhabdidae), Delius nudus (Paracalanidae), Pontellina morii (Pontellidae), Oithona oculata, O. pseudofrigida (Oithonidae) and Pachos dentatum (Oncaeidae) were 11 species of new record in the surrounding waters of Taiwan. Copepod abundance in February, May, August, and November 2004 was 545.6 ± 460.7 inds/m3 (mean±SD), 794.5 ± 1162.8 inds/m3, 771.8 ± 1581.3 inds/m3, 1007.7 ± 1158 inds/m3, respectively, and was abundant in the vicinity of the Taiwan Bank and in the northern TS. It showed no clear relationship between the copepod abundance and the phytoplankton biomass in each season. Copepod diversity and evenness was higher in the KC, KBC and SCSC, in contrast to the CCC and the waters in the vicinity of the Tanshui River estuary. Stations with similar species assemblage were in the waters with similar hydrographic conditions, according to the spatial distribution of hydrography and results of the cluster analysis. Dominant species in the same water masses showed seasonal variations. The dominant species in the waters influenced by the CCC were Calanus sinicus, Canthocalanus pauper, Oncaea venusta, Paracalanus aculeatus, and P. parvus. And those dominant species in the SCSC were Temora turbinata, Undinula vulgaris, Paracalanus aculeatus, Canthocalanus pauper, Clausocalanus minor, Acrocalanus gibber, and Cosmocalanus darwini. While in the KBC were Oncaea venusta, Paracalanus aculeatus, Canthocalanus pauper, Cosmocalanus darwini and Acrocalanus gibber. However, it showed significant seasonal and annual variations. In this study, we also try to find the indicators of the main currents in the TS. The result of indicator species analysis showed that there were 83, 7, and 22 species with indicator value (IV) higher than 25 % in the KBC, CCC, and SCSC, respectively. The indicator species in the KBC were Paraeucalanus attenuatus (IV=100 %), Lucicutia curta (100 %), Sapphirina gemma (100 %), Haloptilus longicornis (88.9 %), Aetideus acutus (81.7 %), etc. While in the CCC were Euchaeta plana (100 %), Calanus sinicus (86.8 %), Corycaeus (Ditrichocorycaeus) affinis (85.7 %), Acrocalanus gracilis (56.6 %), etc. And in the SCSC were Corycaeus (Onychocorycaeus) pumilus (100 %), Corycaeus (Urocorycaeus) longistylis (65.5 %), Candacia ethiopica (59.7 %), Labidocera acuta (57.3), Euterpina acutifrons (55.2), Pontella fera (49.4), etc. The relationship between 40 dominant copepods and 6 hydrographic parameters were examined by the Canonical correlation analysis in this study.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0D91310002
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/15844
Appears in Collections:[環境生物與漁業科學學系] 博碩士論文

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