|Abstract: ||我國為全球領先之遠洋漁捕大國，然因近年來國際漁業法律體制之演變，以及區域漁業管理組織之興起，使得公海漁捕自由日漸喪失，我國的遠洋漁業所受限制也與日俱增。同時，由於國際漁業法律體制之變化除了影響了國家在國際漁業上之各項作為，也使得區域漁業管理組織成為公海漁業資源養護與管理之要角。 國際漁業法律體制與區域漁業管理組織兩個客體間之關係，以及兩者間影響及受影響之程度與廣度，對身為遠洋漁捕大國的我國而言，實在是有徹底研究之必要。故本研究之目的主要在於探討「國際漁業法律文件對於區域漁業管理組織發展與決策之影響」，並以一九九五年所通過的「協定」及「規約」兩份最新文件中之新要素為量尺，證實（substantiate）此二國際文件對區域漁業管理組織發展與決策之影響，並探討區域漁業管理組織在一九九五年前、後是否發生「典範變遷」（paradigm shift）之現象，及其所代表之意義。 雖然本研究探討之六個區域漁業管理組織的組織特性並不完全相同，研究結果仍然顯示，在「協定」與「規約」正式通過之後，各個組織之組織發展與決策的確都明顯受到「協定」與「規約」兩文件規範與要求之影響，僅有影響深度與廣度上的差異。越晚設立之區域漁業管理組織或會員數目較少的組織，受「協定」之影響越大；而成立年代越久遠、會員數目愈多、與FAO關係愈密切之區域漁業管理組織則所受影響相對較低。 在區域漁業管理組織之典範變遷方面，本研究顯示典範變遷確已發生於這些區域漁業管理組織之中，且歸納出發生典範變遷之內涵與其意義包括：全球性組織的發展結果，影響區域性組織之發展與運作；「軟法」對區域漁業管理組織發展與決策之影響已不下於「硬法」，甚至有凌駕之趨勢；國際法上出現新的國際外交行為者；條約效力似乎及於第三國，甚至企圖涉入國家內部事務；以及公海漁捕自由在目前區域漁業管理組織之運作模式下已不復存在。 關鍵詞：國際漁業管理體制、區域漁業管理組織、一九九五年聯合國魚群協定、責任漁業行為規約、典範變遷、軟法、漁捕實體。|
Taiwan is a leading deep-sea fishing nation in the world. However, due to the evolution of international fisheries legal regime and the rising of regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs), Taiwanese deep-sea fisheries are facing more limitations than ever. Meanwhile, the changes of international fisheries legal regime not only affect State behaviors in international fisheries, but also make RFMOs become the most important actors for the conservation and management of high seas fisheries resources. The relationship of these two objects, namely the international fisheries legal regime and the RMFOs, as well as the impacts and their level and scope between the two, is vital for us to study, especially when Taiwan is a leading fishing nation. The objective of this study is to “analyze the impacts of international fisheries legal instruments to the development and decision-making of regional fisheries management organizations”. This study selects the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement (UN FSA) and the 1995 UN FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), both adopted with the UN system, as the two international instruments, selecting the new elements as yardstick, substantiating the impacts of these two instruments to the development and decisions of RFMOs, analyzing if the phenomenon of paradigm shift even occurred in RFMOs before and after 1995, and discussing the meanings of these this phenomenon. Although the organizational characteristics among the six selected RFMOs are not the same, this study shows that the development and decisions of these organizations were apparently influenced by the content and requirements of both the UN FSA and CCRF after their formal adoption, with only differences on the depth and scope of these influences. The RMFOs established at a later time or with less number of Members are greaterly affected by the UN FSA, while those established at an earlier time and with more Members or more closely associated with FAO are affected lesser by the UN FSA. With respect to the paradigm shift of RFMOs, this study shows that paradigm shift did have occurred within these RFMOs, and concludes the content and meanings of this paradigm shift as follows: first, the development and operation of regional organizations are influenced by the development of global organizations; second, the impacts to the development and decisions of these RFMOs by “soft laws” are not less than “hard laws”, sometimes the former even outweights the later; third, a new actor in international diplomacy emerges in the international law plane; fourth, treaties seem apply to the third parties, even with a tendency of intervening States’ internal affairs; finally, the freedom of fishing on the high seas is no longer existed under the existing operation of RFMOs. Keywords: international fisheries legal regime, regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs), 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement (UN FSA), 1995 UN FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), paradigm shift, soft law, fishing entities.