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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/15229

Title: 光學衛星影像在地球科學上的應用
The Applications of Optical Satellite Image in the Earth Sciences
Authors: Hung-Ming Kao
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Applied Geosciences
Keywords: 衛星;遙測;水深;分類法;次像元
Satellite;Remote Sensing;Bathymetry;Classification;Subpixel
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2011-06-30T08:09:07Z
Abstract: 光學衛星影像施測的範圍廣大而且快速,非常適合運用於大面積地球科學的探測與研究。本文即針對於多光譜衛星影像於地球科學的應用做一深入探討並以六篇已發表之論文做為實例,加以說明光學衛星影像於地球科學探測的潛力及限制。在水深探測方面,我們使用法國史波特(SPOT)光學衛星影像資料做為探測資料。史波特衛星的綠光波段可對水層穿透,在本論文中亦開發出一套新技術,可針對不同區域提供不同的底質和水質參數,透過此技術可增加水深探測的準確度。除了水深探測以外、本論文亦發展一垂直混合的新概念,運用於淺海環境調查。傳統次相元(subpixel)的概念只局限於地表平面的混合像元,而偵測淺海環境時其混合即包括了淺海底質混合、海水及水深資訊的混合。本文另運用正交子空間投影技術,將一像元內垂直混合的各種資訊一一拆離開來,而達到淺海環境調查的目地。除了垂直混合概念的開發以外,本論文亦利用此方法於不同地區加以調查,對於某些不容易進入的外國島嶼的淺海環境也可利用衛星影像配合此方法加以調查。除了海平面以下資訊的調查以外,本文也發展一方法可針對海平面的油污分佈加以估計。由於海平面的油污經常俱有特殊的光譜特性,理論上異常物偵測演算法可偵測出其分佈。但海平面上的干擾卻又常常造成誤判。故本論文開發出一套計算方法,可將海平面油污的空間分佈加入運算,藉此增加油污分佈估計的精準度。除了海洋的探測以外,本論文也對陸地上的環境發展了合適的影像處理演算法。本文提出一個新的純像元偵測演算法。一般方法皆是直接在影像中選取機率最大的點做為純像元,但是當影像中純像元根本就不存在時,也就是所有的像元皆是混合像元時,傳統的方法就無法順利的找到純像元。本論文所開發的技術,可依據已知的影像,推估出純像元最有可能的位置,即使純像元並不存在於影像中,亦能推算出最有可能是純像元的位置。除了純像元的偵測估計外,本文亦發展一技術可針對因台灣山區地形高低起伏而造成衛星影像上的陰影而加以修正。由於陰影經常造成影像分類上的錯誤,本文所提出的技術可利用純像元線性組合的特性而將陰影用投影的方法去除。經過處理後的分類結果明顯優於未去除陰影的影像。在本論文的最後一部份發展出將遙測演算法以硬體實現的實例。本文利用可程式晶片的技術將影像的數值做初步的處理,經處理後的影像可去除不必要的資訊,而大幅縮小影像的資料量而達到更方便傳輸的目地。本論文的目地即開發出適用於海洋及地球科學遙測影像的演算法,藉由這些新式的演算法,可將陸地、海面及海底的資訊調查得更清楚,進而應用在地球科學上的研究與發展。
Optical satellite images have the advantages in the studies of earth science which could survey a vast area efficiently. This thesis focuses on the applications of multi-spectral satellite images to the oceanic science survey and also employed 6 published papers to explain the potential and limitation. In the water depth survey, we employed the French optical satellite SPOT images as the basis data. The study had employ the character that the green band of SPOT satellite images could penetrate more through the water column and also developed a set of technique to find out the parameters of sea bottom reflectance and water quality parameters in each pixels to improve the accuracy of shallow water depth detection. Beside the water depth determination, this thesis had also developed a new concept to investigate the shallow water environment. The traditional subpixel mixing concept only represents the plane surface mixing, but when in the shallow water environment the subpixel mixing is not only including the sea bottom surface mixing but also mixing the water quality and water depth information. This study uses the orthogonal subspace projection technique to take apart the information from a vertical mixing pixel to obtain the shallow environment investigation. Beside the exploitation concept of vertical subpixel mixing, the research also employs this new developed method and the local satellite images to investigate the area which can’t be entered such as the foreign country island or some remote districts. Besides the under sea level investigation, this thesis has also developed another method to estimate the oil spill above the sea level. In the virtue of oil spell usually has an unique character in spectrum and the anomaly detection algorithm in which it should able to detect the oil spell distribution. But some marine phenomenon’s interfere usually cause the detection more difficult. This thesis has developed a method which could involve the space information to the calculation and improve the accuracy to estimate the distribution of oil spell. Furthermore, this thesis also developed two algorithms to deal the satellite images analysis on land. The first one is a new algorithm which detected the pure pixel spectrum character. The traditional methods always choose from the images directly and figure out the largest probability pixel as the pure pixel spectrum, but when the pure pixel is not exited in the images and all the images are mixed, actually the traditional one can’t seek out the pure pixel from the images. This study has developed a technique which base on the data images to estimate the largest probability position even if the pure pixel do not exist in the images and the traditional method is able to find out the most possible position of the pure pixel. The purpose of this thesis is to develop the algorithms which is suitable for the marine remote sensing, and these algorithms could help to improve the investigation of information whether above or below the sea level and apply them into the marine geosciences research. The second algorithm we proposed in land area is a shadow remove algorithm. The shadow effects always cause certain error when doing the image classification. This thesis proposed a method to eliminate the shaded effects by a simple project base on subpixel assumption. After the shadow remove procedure the classification result had improved obviously. The last part of this thesis is about hardware design to remote sensing algorithm. This thesis had utilized programmable chip to implement the remote sensing algorithm to the circuit to preprocess the images had recorded on satellite. The process is not only help to remove the information not necessary but also reduce the quantity of data to make the data transmission more convenient.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0D91860001
Appears in Collections:[應用地球科學研究所] 博碩士論文

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