|Abstract: ||本論文以系統整合之概念出發，結合傳統儀器導航系統、視覺導航系統與影像處理技術，建立以視覺導航為主體之改良式導標導航法則，再將靠泊控制與導航曲線追蹤相結合，完成自動導引船舶入港及靠泊作業之控制系統，進而建構所謂整合式靠泊系統(IBCS, Intergated Berthing Control System)。由於一般船舶進港時慣用之傳統式疊標導航概念，其疊標設計為前後擺設，該設計方法僅能提供特定之導航參考位置及航向，因此除了提供進港導引外，無法提供額外服務。本研究則提出改良式導標導航法並結合視覺導航概念，係將傳統導航法原前後擺設之疊標，改變為左右擺設之導航標誌，沿著碼頭岸壁形成一基線。再利用影像處理加上設定比例方式，可產生垂直於此基線上之任意虛擬導航線，利用此虛擬之導航線可用於船舶導引進港及靠泊目標之導引參考。首先藉由變化設定比例方式訂定出適當之導航線或參考曲線，並利用影像技術執行自動導航及控制本船前進，自行導引至虛擬導航線或沿導航曲線追蹤，導引及控制船舶抵達船席待泊區。再運用相似概念佈置另一組靠泊使用之導標，則可用於自動靠泊導引，完成整合式靠泊系統建構之目的。視覺導航需求之影像資訊將以CCD攝影機擷取，利用影像處理分析技術之顏色辨別方式來判斷導航標誌之所在，藉由計算導航標誌之幾何中心位置，再利用影像座標關係，作為本船與導航標誌間相對導航修正量之計算基礎。經由自航控制器進行一序列之航向變換控制，將船舶導引、控制至預定航道線上，或沿導航曲線航行之。 總結，本研究在於建構整合式靠泊系統，整體工作流程分為四個階段主題進行。其一，利用傳統之儀器導航方式驗證本文提出之新式視線導航法(NLOS)，第二，探討並驗證以改良式導標導航法進行船舶自動入港導引測試，第三項以改良式導標導航法應用於靠泊控制，最後一項再以儀器導航概念驗證所提出改良式導標導航法之實用性。研究中將利用電腦數值模擬方式，尋求較佳之控制參數及驗證理論之可行性，並與傳統式視線導航法(LOS)及傳統式疊標導航法(Leading Line Method)等比較彼此優略點。最終將完成以視覺導航為基礎之船位自動導航控制系統之開發研究及電腦數值模擬驗證，並利用海大操船模擬設備及FRP小型船舶試驗本論文所提方法之實務可行性。|
The main objective of this thesis is on the development of an image processing-based improved visual guidance scheme with application to an integrated berthing control system (IBCS), which is consisted of two modules; namely the track-keeping control module for the approaching phase and the berthing control module. Comparisons of the performance of two typical shiphandling techniques adopted by the mariners, the nautical instrument navigation scheme and the visual guidance scheme will be made by using a shiphandling simulator. In the traditional visual guidance-based leading line method, two leading marks, arranged in tandem, are used to form a reference track to be followed during the approaching phase. However, this traditional leading line concept only serves for a fixed purpose and the performance degrades if the depth between the leading marks is limited. In the proposed improved visual guidance approach, two canvas targets are arranged along the berthing wall to form a reference base-line, and a virtual leading line perpendicular to the berthing wall is constructed at a position determined by a ratio parameter r, defined as the ratio of the distance between the left-hand target and the virtual leading mark to the distance between the left-hand target and the right-hand target. The position of the virtual leading mark can be adjusted simply by modifying the value of the ratio r. Thus, in contrast to the traditional leading line method, the proposed approach enables multiple leading lines to be constructed using a single set of leading marks. By combining the setting ratio r with the ship to berth distance information, a leading curve during the approaching maneuver stage can be formed, and the proposed improved visual guidance concept can also be used during the berthing phase. During the maneuver trial, the leading marks (i.e. the canvas targets) are captured by a CCD camera mounted on the bridge of the simulator-based ship and the resulting image is processed using a color recognition and noise filtering scheme. The geometric centers of the two leading marks are calculated, and the separation distance between them and the distance from the leading marks to the virtual leading line are used to compute the deviated heading angle and track deviation angle of the boat in accordance with basic trigonometric principles. In summary, this thesis is devoted to the development of an integrated berthing control system, and the development progress can be divided into four stages which are (a) validation of the proposed New Line of Sight (NLOS) guidance method by using the traditional nautical instrument navigation, and (b) verification of the improved visual guidance scheme in the approaching maneuver, and (c) verification of the improved visual guidance method during the berthing stage, and (d) feasibility study of the improved visual guidance scheme via nautical instrument navigation scheme. The feasibility of the proposed approach will be verified by performing a series of numerical simulation, shiphandling simulation tests and small boat experiments in a real word harbour setting.