|Abstract: ||交通事故，也就是俗稱的車禍，是極為普遍的問題，幾乎每一個人或身邊的人都有遭遇交通事故的經驗。本文論述的重心在於汽車、機車等陸路交通工具，於利用道路行駛發生之事故類型，因其為一般人日常生活所常見，因此有必要探討其相關規範及刑罰之要件。再者交通事故大多肇因為過失型態，其刑事責任主要為過失傷害罪、過失致人於死罪及業務過失3種，因此故意行為所產生之交通事故，不在本文討論範圍。 本文先敘明交通事故定義，分析交通事故之類型，將交通事故的處理單位與權責作一劃分，並討論交通事故因果關係，藉以瞭解與交通事故相關事項。探討過失犯的基本概念、過失理論的歷史演繹過程及信賴原則，再分別討論過失傷害罪、過失致人於死罪及業務過失3種犯罪類型，最後分析過失共同正犯及過失不作為犯與過失責任之關聯。 就警察機關處理交通事故之問題，分析警察處理交通事故之角色、警察機關處理交通事故之方式及微罪不予解送權之討論。並說明各類交通事故鑑定機關之功能與審理程序，及彼等鑑定結果對於司法實務之效力，再討論交通事故鑑定組織及相關作業問題，最後分析不同鑑定機關鑑定結果之爭議問題。從法律面、實務面分析交通事故過失認定之爭議問題，並提出個人對於問題解決之意見。 綜合上述對於交通事故之處理流程，對於警察機關、鑑定機構及法院之審理，提出個人意見供參，並對於目前不適宜之法令，提出修法建議。|
Traffic accidents, so-called “car accidents”, are extremely common problems that almost everyone or surrounding people must have experienced before. The research will be expected to cover primarily on vehicles and motorcycles, or other land-based transportation tools while driven/ridden on the roads. Owing to the fact that these are the usual tools to traffic in our daily life, it is necessary to delve into the importance of its related regulation and the essence of penal punishment. Furthermore, traffic accidents resulted largely from the negligence which will lead to the criminal responsibility for either negligently causing bodily harm, for negligently causing death, or for causing death/bodily harm due to professional negligence. The research will first detail the definition of the traffic accident, and then analyze the types of traffic accidents. After that, it continues to discuss which police unit should handle the traffic accident while it happens as well as to divide the rights and responsibilities along with it within the police units involved. The cause-effect relationship has also been discussed so that we can understand the issues associated with the traffic accidents. The other highlights of the thesis contain the essential concept of the negligent crime, the deduction of the negligence theory, the principle of reliance, and the respective discussions of committing an offense of negligently causing bodily harm, of negligently causing death, or for causing death/bodily harm due to professional negligence. Last but not least, it examines the relationship between negligent co-perpetration, criminal omission, and negligent responsibilities. In terms of police agencies dealing with traffic accidents, this thesis also review the role of police officers handling the traffic accidents, the way the police agencies manage it, and the right to dispose petty crimes. It further explains the functions of various assessment agencies and their review process as well as the effectiveness of respective assessment results. Besides, the issues involving the organizations for the assessment of traffic accidents and other related operation conundrum are also mentioned in this article. At last, it articulates the dispute due to the divergent outcomes from various assessment organizations. By analyzing the determination of the negligence of traffic accidents from the perspectives of the law and the everyday practice, the research will hand some doable methods to cope with this problem. Based on what have been mentioned above regarding the procedures to tackle the traffic accidents, this thesis will bring up some useful ways as reference to address the drawbacks originating from the agencies dealing with the traffic accidents including police agencies, assessment organizations, and the courts, while it also provides some recommendations to modify the regulations inappropriate right now.