|Abstract: ||摘 要 全世界原住民族約有五千多個合計三億人以上，分布在全球各地，原住民是許多土地上原始居民的後裔，有關他們的宗教語言乃至風俗習慣都充滿原始風貌。但當殖民主義或者外來民族對空間、各項權利的爭奪，使得原來的生活不復存在,造成「在原本屬於他們的土地上被一再驅趕、歧視」，在標榜西方民主自由的世界觀上，他們竟成為世界上最被忽視的民族之ㄧ。 台灣原住民屬南島語系，和漢民族在歷史、語言、文化上存在著根本的差異。過去在幽遠的歷史時空中，台灣原住民久居這塊島嶼上，鮮少有外來勢力入侵。直到近代，歐洲的航海技術的發展加上哥倫布發現新大陸的誘因，歐洲列強不斷擴展殖民地勢力，台灣原住民不能避免的終究捲入這股世界洪流中直到今天。有關原住民相關問題範圍非常大，從土地到自決皆可研究，其中最受到矚目的就是其權利問題，或許原住民權益問題世界上均有被忽略的疑問，因此研究問題的重心就不難抓不着重點，同時由於全世界上對「原住民」的定義看法均有不同，各國見解不一，聯合國亦怕妄下定論而有損其他定義以外其他弱勢種族的權益，故本篇研究亦蒐集部分代表性他國境內原住民族的政策，以作為我國之借鏡，尤其其中對中共「民族法學」感到有趣，其內容將逐一探討。 本文是先從各國對原住民族不同的政策中，來反瞻台灣原住民族在主流社會中所受到的待遇是否能與其他國家相比，並試圖由國際法的觀點檢討當前聯合國對原住民族的各種政策，如：一九四八年通過的「世界人權宣言」、一九八九年通過「原住民和部落民族公約」等，藉以審視目前世界上各國原住民概況。最後介紹本國境內原住民，由於我國憲法原以中國大陸領土為主，其境內所謂五族共一家，並無包括台灣境內原住民，造成部分根本上的差異，幸而部分有志之士，能正視台灣本土內族群多元化，因而在憲法增修條文中增列原住民之相關條文，其中第十條第十二項前段規定：「國家應依民族意願，保障原住民族之地位及政治參與，並對其教育文化、交通水利、衛生醫療、經濟土地及社會福利事業予以保障並促其發展。」，依據上開規定，目前政府特訂定「原住民族自治區法」及「原住民族發展法」（送審中），實有研究探討之必要，故將另闢一章節個別研究，最後希望藉由本文研究能使政府正視原住民政策，使真正的「台灣人」，融入台灣的多元文化中。|
Abstract There are about 5000 indigenous races with a total population of over 300 millions around the world, they are distributed all over the world, indigenous people are the descendents of the original residents of many lands, their religion, language and custom are filled with original flavor. But colonism or foreign races invade and deprive of their space and all kinds of rights, their living are strongly disturbed, 「they are driven out and discriminated from the lands that originally belong to them」, they are one of the most negligent race in the world in terms of the global view based on democracy and freedom from the western countries . The indigenous people in Taiwan belong to southern island language system, they have a fundamental difference with Han race in terms of history, language, culture. In the past history, Taiwan indigenous people live in this island with very few disturbance from foreign invaders. Until recently, the development of naval navigation technology from Europe plus the Newland discovered by Columbus have resulted in the expansion of colony land from countries of super forces in Europe, Taiwan indigenous people is thus unavoidably got involved in this world stream until today. The scope of indigenous people related problems is so broad, you can study from land issue to self-determining issue, one of the most eye-catching issue is regarding to their rights. Maybe their rights are so neglected all over the world, it is thus very easy to catch the key points in this issue if you try to study it . Indigenous people has very different definitions from country to country, United Nations hesitates to make a definition because it might hurt the rights of other weak races once one definition is made. This study collects some representative foreign country indigenous people policies to be used as our country’s reference, focus will be laid on “Race laws ” from Mainland China, its contents will be investigated one by one in this study. This article try to look at how Taiwan’s indigenous people are treated in the mainstream society to see if it is comparable to that of other countries based on the indigenous people policies from countries all over the world. We also try to look at United Nations’ indigenous people policies through international law’s point of view, such as: ” World human rights statement” passed in 1948,” Indigenous people and tribes ethnic treaty” passed in 1989, etc., we try to have an overview on all he indigenous people around the world. We will finally introduce indigenous people in Taiwan. The original Constitution in our country is based on the land and territory in Mainland China, there are five main races in the same family, it doesn’t include indigenous people in Taiwan. Some people in Taiwan see the multiple races appeared in Taiwan, they therefore add some related regulations in the amended Constitution, among them, section 12 of article 10 says ：”Our country should protect the social status and political participation rights of indigenous people in compliance with ethnic willing, it should also protect and promotes its development in terms of their rights regarding to education and culture, traffic and water resources, health and medical care, economy and land, and social welfare. “ Our government thus made recently「Indigenous people independent area regulations」and 「Indigenous people development regulations」（in examination process）, it will be studied in another section independently, we hope that this study can draw more government’s attention on indigenous people policies such that real “Taiwanese” can be melted into the multi-element culture of Taiwan.