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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/13229

Title: 世界貿易組織架構下漁業資源保育法制之研究---兼論台灣因應對策
A Study on the Legal System of the Conservation of Fishery Resources under the World Trade Organization(WTO)---with Taiwan's Reactive Policy
Authors: Chen-Ju Chen
陳貞如
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of the Law of the Sea
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋法律研究所
Keywords: 世界貿易組織;漁業資源保育;永續發展;漁業補貼;爭端解決
World Trade Organization(WTO);Conservation of Fishery Resources;Sustainable Development;Fishery Subsidies;Dispute Settlement
Date: 2003
Issue Date: 2011-06-30T07:16:55Z
Abstract: 摘 要 隨著全球人口大量增加、科技快速發展、經濟迅速成長,雖改善人類生活水準,卻為環境帶來威脅,污染問題日益嚴重,自然資源漸漸枯竭,為此一九八七年聯合國世界環境與發展委員會首先提出「永續發展」(sustainable development)概念,發展至今,已蔚為主流。然而在關稅暨貿易總協定於一九四七年制定之時,國際間環保意識尚未高漲,因此於關稅暨貿易總協定僅有少數條文涉及環境議題,例如第二十條第二項及第七項一般例外之環保例外。關稅暨貿易總協定與永續發展之概念亦容有許多矛盾。 WTO成立後,依其宗旨對於永續發展及漁業資源保育議題已有關切,因此WTO架構下,涉及漁業資源保育之協定,例如:食品衛生檢驗與動植物衛生檢疫措施協定、技術性貿易障礙協定、補貼暨平衡措施協定、爭端解決規則與程序瞭解書等等,企圖在貿易自由化之際,兼顧漁業資源之永續發展。近年,各國認為漁業補貼已成為漁業資源枯竭之原因之一,因此於杜哈回合發展談判中,關於補貼暨平衡措施協定之協議中,針對此問題亦有所注目。 在漁業資源方面,面對魚源嚴重枯竭問題,除在一九八二年聯合國海洋法公約提出「專屬經濟區制度」外,相關國際會議及組織針對此一議題已經朝向「可持續利用」、「最適度利用」之方向思惟,並於制度上設計能將落實之方法,具體上強化國際組織、(分)區域漁業組織功能與職權,並嘗試在特定條件下對沿海國管理權限為監督,加重並落實對公海捕魚船旗國所當承當責任。 因此,為因應加入世界貿易組織後之面對貿易自由化之義務,我國漁業亦應確立因應關稅調降後之市場變化與國外漁獲大量進口之相關政策,兼顧漁業資源之永續發展,以漁業實體(fishing entity)之名,積極參與國際漁業組織及活動,訂立與世界標準相符之保育及管理法規,以盡之吾國之國際義務。
Abstract With the mass population increasing on the earth, the rapid improvement of science, and the blooming development of economy, the living standards of human beings have been improved. However, it threatens the environment, leads to lots of environmental pollutions, and exhausts the natural resources. In order to solve these problems, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) brought the term of “Sustainable Development” which has been the mainstream of the international society. However, when GATT was established in 1947, there were seldom concerns about sustainable development. There are only few articles involved to environmental issues, such as GATT §20.2 and §20.7. After the establishment of WTO in 1995, according to the Preamble of the Agreement Establishing the WTO, the issues of sustainable development and the conservation of fishery resources have attracted to some international attentions. Therefore, under the WTO framework, the agreements related to the conservation of fishery resources, such as SPS Agreement, NTB Agreement, SCM Agreement, and Dispute Settlement Understanding, intend to find the balance of trade and environment. Hence, in order to face the international obligation after becoming the member of the WTO and pursue the conservation of the fishery resources, Taiwan should make reactive rules and policies which could be recognized by the international society, and take aggressive participations in international fishery organizations and conventions by the name of “fishing entity ” to accomplish its international obligation.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cdrfb3/record/#G0M91740002
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/13229
Appears in Collections:[海洋法律研究所] 博碩士論文

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